Volume: 2 Issue 1
12 Article(s)

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Vortex-induced quasi-shear polaritons | Article Video
Shuwen Xue, Yali Zeng, Sicen Tao, Tao Hou, Shan Zhu, Chuanjie Hu, and Huanyang Chen
Hyperbolic shear polaritons (HShPs) emerge with widespread attention as a class of polariton modes with broken symmetry due to shear lattices. We find a mechanism of generating quasi-HShPs(q-HShPs). When utilizing vortex waves as excitation sources of hyperbolic materials without off-diagonal elements, q-HShPs will appear. In addition, these asymmetric q-HShPs can be recovered as symmetric modes away from the source, with a critical transition mode between the left-skewed and right-skewed q-HShPs, via tuning the magnitude of the off-diagonal imaginary component and controlling the topological charge of the vortex source. It is worth mentioning that we explore the influence of parity of topological charges on the field distribution and demonstrate these exotic phenomena from numerical and analytical perspectives. Our results will promote opportunities for both q-HShPs and vortex waves, widening the horizon for various hyperbolic materials based on vortex sources and offering a degree of freedom to control various kinds of polaritons.
Advanced Photonics Nexus
  • Publication Date: Jan. 03, 2023
  • Vol. 2, Issue 1, 015001 (2023)
Research Articles
Laterally swept light-sheet microscopy enhanced by pixel reassignment for photon-efficient volumetric imaging
Liang Qiao, Hongjin Li, Suyi Zhong, Xinzhu Xu, Fei Su, Xi Peng, Dayong Jin, and Karl Zhanghao
In light-sheet fluorescence microscopy, the axial resolution and field of view are mutually constrained. Axially swept light-sheet microscopy (ASLM) can decouple the trade-off, but the confocal detection scheme using a rolling shutter also rejects fluorescence signals from the specimen in the field of interest, which sacrifices the photon efficiency. Here, we report a laterally swept light-sheet microscopy (LSLM) scheme in which the focused beam is first scanned along the axial direction and subsequently laterally swept with the rolling shutter. We show that LSLM can obtain a higher photon efficiency when similar axial resolution and field of view can be achieved. Moreover, based on the principle of image scanning microscopy, applying the pixel reassignment to the LSLM images, hereby named iLSLM, improves the optical sectioning. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate the higher photon efficiency with similar axial resolution and optical sectioning. Our proposed scheme is suitable for volumetric imaging of specimens that are susceptible to photobleaching or phototoxicity.
Advanced Photonics Nexus
  • Publication Date: Jan. 15, 2023
  • Vol. 2, Issue 1, 016001 (2023)
Ultrafast optical phase-sensitive ultrasonic detection via dual-comb multiheterodyne interferometry
Yitian Tong, Xudong Guo, Mingsheng Li, Huajun Tang, Najia Sharmin, Yue Xu, Wei-Ning Lee, Kevin K. Tsia, and Kenneth K. Y. Wong
Highly sensitive and broadband ultrasound detection is important for photoacoustic imaging, biomedical ultrasound, and ultrasonic nondestructive testing. The elasto-optical refractive index modulation induced by ultrasound arouses a transient phase shift of a probe beam. Highly sensitive phase detection with a high Q factor resonator is desirable to visualize the ultraweak transient ultrasonic field. However, current phase-sensitive ultrasonic detectors suffer from limited bandwidth, mutual interference between intensity and phase, and significant phase noise, which become key to limiting further improvement of detection performance. We report a phase-sensitive detector with a bandwidth of up to 100 MHz based on dual-comb multiheterodyne interferometry (DCMHI). By sensing the phase shift induced by the ultrasound without any resonators in the medium, the DCMHI boosted the phase sensitivity by coherent accumulation without any magnitude averaging and extra radio frequency amplification. DCMHI offers high sensitivity and broad bandwidth as the noise-equivalent pressure reaches 31 mPa / √Hz under 70 MHz acoustic responses. With a large repetition rate difference of up to 200 MHz of dual comb, DCMHI can achieve broadband acoustic responses up to 100 MHz and a maximum possible imaging acquisition rate of 200 MHz. It is expected that DCMHI can offer a new perspective on the new generation of optical ultrasound detectors.
Advanced Photonics Nexus
  • Publication Date: Jan. 15, 2023
  • Vol. 2, Issue 1, 016002 (2023)
Deterministic N-photon state generation using lithium niobate on insulator device | Article Video , On the Cover
Hua-Ying Liu, Minghao Shang, Xiaoyi Liu, Ying Wei, Minghao Mi, Lijian Zhang, Yan-Xiao Gong, Zhenda Xie, and Shining Zhu
Advanced Photonics Nexus
  • Publication Date: Jan. 15, 2023
  • Vol. 2, Issue 1, 016003 (2023)
On-chip tunable parity‐time symmetric optoelectronic oscillator
Lin Wang, Xi Xiao, Lu Xu, Yifan Liu, Yu Chen, Yuan Yu, and Xinliang Zhang
Parity‐time (PT) symmetry breaking offers mode selection capability for facilitating single‐mode oscillation in the optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) loop. However, most OEO implementations depend on discrete devices, which impedes proliferation due to size, weight, power consumption, and cost. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an on-chip tunable PT‐symmetric OEO. A tunable microwave photonic filter, a PT‐symmetric mode‐selective architecture, and two photodetectors are integrated on a silicon‐on‐insulator chip. By exploiting an on‐chip Mach–Zehnder interferometer to match the gain and loss of two mutually coupled optoelectronic loops, single‐mode oscillation can be obtained. In the experiment, the oscillation frequency of the on-chip tunable PT‐symmetric OEO can be tuned from 0 to 20 GHz. To emulate the integrated case, the OEO loop length is minimized, and no extra-long fiber is used in the experiment. When the oscillation frequency is 13.67 GHz, the single‐sideband phase noise at 10-kHz offset frequency is -80.96 dBc / Hz and the side mode suppression ratio is 46 dB. The proposed on-chip tunable PT‐symmetric OEO significantly reduces the footprint of the system and enhances mode selection.
Advanced Photonics Nexus
  • Publication Date: Jan. 02, 2023
  • Vol. 2, Issue 1, 016004 (2023)
Optical reflective metasurfaces based on mirror-coupled slot antennas
Sven Ebel, Yadong Deng, Mario Hentschel, Chao Meng, Sören im Sande, Harald Giessen, Fei Ding, and Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi
Electrically connected optical metasurfaces with high efficiencies are crucial for developing spatiotemporal metadevices with ultrahigh spatial and ultrafast temporal resolutions. While efficient metal–insulator–metal (MIM) metasurfaces containing discretized meta-atoms require additional electrodes, Babinet-inspired slot-antenna-based plasmonic metasurfaces suffer from low efficiencies and limited phase coverage for copolarized optical fields. Capitalizing on the concepts of conventional MIM and slot-antenna metasurfaces, we design and experimentally demonstrate a new type of optical reflective metasurfaces consisting of mirror-coupled slot antennas (MCSAs). By tuning the dimensions of rectangular-shaped nanoapertures atop a dielectric-coated gold mirror, we achieve efficient phase modulation within a sufficiently large range of 320 deg and realize functional phase-gradient metadevices for beam steering and beam splitting in the near-infrared range. The fabricated samples show (22 % ± 2 % ) diffraction efficiency for beam steering and (17 % ± 1 % ) for beam splitting at the wavelength of 790 nm. The considered MCSA configuration, dispensing with auxiliary electrodes, offers an alternative and promising platform for electrically controlled reflective spatiotemporal metasurfaces.
Advanced Photonics Nexus
  • Publication Date: Jan. 02, 2023
  • Vol. 2, Issue 1, 016005 (2023)
Anomalous broadband Floquet topological metasurface with pure site rings | Article Video
Zhiwei Guo, Xian Wu, Yong Sun, Haitao Jiang, Ya-Qiong Ding, Yunhui Li, Yewen Zhang, and Hong Chen
Photonic and acoustic topological insulators exhibiting one-way transportation that is robust against defects and impurities are typically realized in coupled arrays of two-dimensional ring resonators. These systems have produced a series of applications, including optical isolators, delay lines, and lasers. However, the structures are complicated because an additional coupler ring between neighboring rings is needed to construct photonic pseudospin. A photonic anomalous Floquet topological insulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in the microwave regime. This improved design takes advantage of the efficient and backward coupling of negative-index media. The results contribute to the understanding of topological structures in metamaterials and point toward a unique direction for constructing useful topological photonic devices.
Advanced Photonics Nexus
  • Publication Date: Jan. 02, 2023
  • Vol. 2, Issue 1, 016006 (2023)
Characterization of multimode linear optical networks
Francesco Hoch, Taira Giordani, Nicolò Spagnolo, Andrea Crespi, Roberto Osellame, and Fabio Sciarrino
Multimode optical interferometers represent the most viable platforms for the successful implementation of several quantum information schemes that take advantage of optical processing. Examples range from quantum communication and sensing, to computation, including optical neural networks, optical reservoir computing, or simulation of complex physical systems. The realization of such routines requires high levels of control and tunability of the parameters that define the operations carried out by the device. This requirement becomes particularly crucial in light of recent technological improvements in integrated photonic technologies, which enable the implementation of progressively larger circuits embedding a considerable amount of tunable parameters. We formulate efficient procedures for the characterization of optical circuits in the presence of imperfections that typically occur in physical experiments, such as unbalanced losses and phase instabilities in the input and output collection stages. The algorithm aims at reconstructing the transfer matrix that represents the optical interferometer without making any strong assumptions about its internal structure and encoding. We show the viability of this approach in an experimentally relevant scenario, defined by a tunable integrated photonic circuit, and we demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method. Our findings can find application in a wide range of optical setups, based on both bulk and integrated configurations.
Advanced Photonics Nexus
  • Publication Date: Jan. 03, 2023
  • Vol. 2, Issue 1, 016007 (2023)
Detection of trace metals in water by filament- and plasma-grating-induced breakdown spectroscopy
Mengyun Hu, Fangfang Li, Shencheng Shi, Yu Qiao, Jinman Ge, Xiaojun Li, and Heping Zeng
Filament- and plasma-grating-induced breakdown spectroscopy (F-GIBS) was demonstrated as an efficient technique for sensitive detection of metals in water, where plasma gratings were established through synchronized nonlinear interaction of two noncollinear filaments and an additional filament was generated with another fs laser beam propagating along their bisector. A water jet was constructed vertically to the three co-planar filaments, overcoming side effects from violent plasma explosion and bubble generation. Three distinct regimes of different mechanisms were validated for nonlinear couplings of the third filament with plasma gratings. As the third filament was temporally overlapped with the two noncollinear filaments in the interaction zone, all the three filaments participated in synchronous nonlinear interaction and plasma grating structures were altered by the addition of the third filament. As the third filament was positively or negatively delayed, the as-formed plasma gratings were elongated by the delayed third filament, or plasma gratings were formed in the presence of plasma expansion of the ahead third filament, respectively. Using F-GIBS for trace metal detection in water, significant spectral line enhancements were observed.
Advanced Photonics Nexus
  • Publication Date: Jan. 03, 2023
  • Vol. 2, Issue 1, 016008 (2023)
Confocal rescan structured illumination microscopy for real-time deep tissue imaging with superresolution
Shuhao Shen, E Du, Miao Zhang, Yuting Wen, Kai Long, Anqi Qiu, and Nanguang Chen
Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is an established optical superresolution imaging technique. However, conventional SIM based on wide-field image acquisition is generally limited to visualizing thin cellular samples. We propose combining one-dimensional image rescan and structured illumination in the orthogonal direction to achieve superresolution without the need to rotate the illumination pattern. The image acquisition speed is consequently improved threefold, which is also beneficial for minimizing photobleaching and phototoxicity. Optical sectioning in thick biological tissue is enhanced by including a confocal slit in the system to significantly suppress the out-of-focus background and the associated noise. With all the technical improvements, our method captures three-dimensional superresolved image stacks of neuronal structures in mouse brain tissue samples for a depth range of more than 200 μm.
Advanced Photonics Nexus
  • Publication Date: Jan. 05, 2023
  • Vol. 2, Issue 1, 016009 (2023)
Deep-learning-assisted inverse design of dual-spin/frequency metasurface for quad-channel off-axis vortices multiplexing
Kai Qu, Ke Chen, Qi Hu, Junming Zhao, Tian Jiang, and Yijun Feng
Recently, the metasurfaces for independently controlling the wavefront and amplitude of two orthogonal circularly polarized electromagnetic (EM) waves have been demonstrated to open a way toward spin-multiplexing compact metadevices. However, these metasurfaces are mostly restricted to a single operation frequency band. The main challenge to achieving multiple frequency manipulations stems from the complicated and time-consuming design caused by multifrequency cross talk. To solve this problem, we propose a deep-learning-assisted inverse design method for designing a dual-spin/frequency metasurface with flexible multiplexing of off-axis vortices. By analyzing the cross talk between different spin/frequency channels based on the deep-learning method, we established the internal mapping relationship between the physical parameters of a meta-atom and its phase responses in multichannels, realizing the rapid inverse design of the spin/frequency multiplexing EM device. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated in the microwave region a dual-frequency arbitrary spin-to-orbit angular momentum converter, a dual-frequency off-axis vector vortex multiplexer, and a large-capacity (16-channel) vortex beam generator. The proposed method may provide a compact and efficient platform for the multiplexing of vortices, which may further stimulate their applications in wireless communication and quantum information science.
Advanced Photonics Nexus
  • Publication Date: Jan. 05, 2023
  • Vol. 2, Issue 1, 016010 (2023)
Hybrid reconstruction of the physical model with the deep learning that improves structured illumination microscopy
Jianyong Wang, Junchao Fan, Bo Zhou, Xiaoshuai Huang, and Liangyi Chen
Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) has been widely used in live-cell superresolution (SR) imaging. However, conventional physical model-based SIM SR reconstruction algorithms are prone to artifacts in handling raw images with low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Deep-learning (DL)-based methods can address this challenge but may lead to degradation and hallucinations. By combining the physical inversion model with a total deep variation (TDV) regularization, we propose a hybrid restoration method (TDV-SIM) that outperforms conventional or DL methods in suppressing artifacts and hallucinations while maintaining resolutions. We demonstrate the performance superiority of TDV-SIM in restoring actin filaments, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondrial cristae from extremely low SNR raw images. Thus TDV-SIM represents the ideal method for prolonged live-cell SR imaging with minimal exposure and photodamage. Overall, TDV-SIM proves the power of integrating model-based reconstruction methods with DL ones, possibly leading to the rapid exploration of similar strategies in high-fidelity reconstructions of other microscopy methods.
Advanced Photonics Nexus
  • Publication Date: Jan. 13, 2023
  • Vol. 2, Issue 1, 016012 (2023)