Driven by the congestion of available radio frequency spectrum resources and the ever-increasing demand for wireless network capacity in the upcoming sixth-generation (6G) networks [1,2], visible light communication (VLC) using mass-market illumination light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has attracted considerable attention due to the sufficient visible light spectrum resource (400–800 THz) and high data rate (theoretically up to terabytes per second ). Additionally, VLC has the potential to be integrated into existing solid-state lighting systems, which enables the combination of illumination and wireless communication . Therefore, many efforts have been made to optimize VLC systems to achieve higher data rates and longer transmission distances for more practical applications [5–9].
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