• Photonics Research
  • Vol. 10, Issue 7, 1617 (2022)
Qian Zhao1, Shijie Tu1, Qiannan Lei1, Chengshan Guo1、4、*, Qiwen Zhan2、5、*, and Yangjian Cai1、3、6、*
Author Affiliations
  • 1Shandong Provincial Engineering and Technical Center of Light Manipulations & Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optics and Photonic Device, School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250358, China
  • 2School of Optical-Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China
  • 3School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China
  • 4e-mail: guochsh@sdnu.edu.cn
  • 5e-mail: qwzhan@usst.edu.cn
  • 6e-mail: yangjiancai@sdnu.edu.cn
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    DOI: 10.1364/PRJ.457928 Cite this Article
    Qian Zhao, Shijie Tu, Qiannan Lei, Chengshan Guo, Qiwen Zhan, Yangjian Cai. Creation of cylindrical vector beams through highly anisotropic scattering media with a single scalar transmission matrix calibration[J]. Photonics Research, 2022, 10(7): 1617 Copy Citation Text show less

    Abstract

    Cylindrical vector (CV) beams have attracted increasing interest due to their particular properties and their applications in optical imaging, optical manipulation, and light–matter interactions. However, it is challenging to construct CV beams through highly anisotropic scattering media (HASM), such as thick biological tissue, posing a barrier to the applications of CV beams that involve HASM. Here, we present a scheme to construct CV beams beyond high scattering that only requires a single scalar transmission matrix (TM) calibration and manipulation of the spatial degrees of freedom of the scalar input field. Assisted by a radial polarization converter (S-waveplate) and a polarizer, the scheme enables one to obtain the correct incident wavefront for the creation of CV beams through HASM with only one single scalar TM calibration. Compared to the existing method, this user-friendly approach is fast and simple in terms of the optical implements and computations. Both radially and azimuthally polarized beams are experimentally constructed through a ZnO scattering layer to demonstrate the viability of the method. Arbitrarily generalized CV beams and arrays of CV beams are also created through the HASM to further prove the flexibility of the method. We believe this work may pave the way for applications of CV beams that involve a highly anisotropic scattering environment.

    1. INTRODUCTION

    Optical vector fields may possess singularities associated with the parameterization of elliptical and partial polarization rather than phase [1]. For example, cylindrical vector (CV) beams with cylindrical polarization symmetry contain an undefined polarization azimuth at the center [2,3]. The peculiar polarization symmetry of CV beams gives rise to unique properties under high-numerical-aperture focusing [2,4,5], which has attracted much attention in fields such as superresolution imaging [6,7], optical trapping [810], laser materials processing [11], and light–matter interactions [12,13]. Since 1972 [14,15], many methods have been developed to produce CV beams, including using laser intracavity devices [14,15] that force the laser to oscillate in CV modes, polarization manipulation with spatial light modulators (SLMs) [1618], and employing space variant polarization converters [1921]. However, all of these studies are typically implemented in free space and experience little or no sample aberrations.

    Copy Citation Text
    Qian Zhao, Shijie Tu, Qiannan Lei, Chengshan Guo, Qiwen Zhan, Yangjian Cai. Creation of cylindrical vector beams through highly anisotropic scattering media with a single scalar transmission matrix calibration[J]. Photonics Research, 2022, 10(7): 1617
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