• Advanced Photonics
  • Vol. 4, Issue 1, 016002 (2022)
Quan Xu1, Xiaoqiang Su2、*, Xueqian Zhang1, Lijuan Dong2, Lifeng Liu2, Yunlong Shi2, Qiu Wang3, Ming Kang4, Andrea Alù5、6, Shuang Zhang7、8、*, Jiaguang Han1、9、*, and Weili Zhang10、*
Author Affiliations
  • 1Tianjin University, Center for Terahertz Waves and College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology (Ministry of Education of China), Tianjin, China
  • 2Shanxi Datong University, Institute of Solid State Physics and College of Physics and Electronic Science, Shanxi Province Key Laboratory of Microstructure Electromagnetic Functional Materials, Datong, China
  • 3Wuhan University of Technology, School of Information Engineering, Wuhan, China
  • 4Tianjin Normal University, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin, China
  • 5City University of New York, Advanced Science Research Center, Photonics Initiative, New York, United States
  • 6City University of New York, Graduate Center, Physics Program, New York, United States
  • 7University of Hong Kong, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Hong Kong, China
  • 8University of Hong Kong, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Hong Kong, China
  • 9Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Processing, School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Guilin, China
  • 10Oklahoma State University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stillwater, Oklahoma, United States
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    DOI: 10.1117/1.AP.4.1.016002 Cite this Article
    Quan Xu, Xiaoqiang Su, Xueqian Zhang, Lijuan Dong, Lifeng Liu, Yunlong Shi, Qiu Wang, Ming Kang, Andrea Alù, Shuang Zhang, Jiaguang Han, Weili Zhang. Mechanically reprogrammable Pancharatnam–Berry metasurface for microwaves[J]. Advanced Photonics, 2022, 4(1): 016002 Copy Citation Text show less

    Abstract

    Metasurfaces have enabled the realization of several optical functionalities over an ultrathin platform, fostering the exciting field of flat optics. Traditional metasurfaces are achieved by arranging a layout of static meta-atoms to imprint a desired operation on the impinging wavefront, but their functionality cannot be altered. Reconfigurability and programmability of metasurfaces are the next important step to broaden their impact, adding customized on-demand functionality in which each meta-atom can be individually reprogrammed. We demonstrate a mechanical metasurface platform with controllable rotation at the meta-atom level, which can implement continuous Pancharatnam–Berry phase control of circularly polarized microwaves. As the proof-of-concept experiments, we demonstrate metalensing, focused vortex beam generation, and holographic imaging in the same metasurface template, exhibiting versatility and superior performance. Such dynamic control of electromagnetic waves using a single, low-cost metasurface paves an avenue towards practical applications, driving the field of reprogrammable intelligent metasurfaces for a variety of applications.

    1 Introduction

    As one of the most rapidly expanding frontiers of modern photonics, metasurfaces hold promise for a wide range of applications due to their compact physical size and unconventional optical functionalities.16 These flat and miniaturized devices usually consist of an array of optically thin meta-atoms (plasmonic or dielectric structures) with spatially varying geometrical parameters and subwavelength separations aimed at imprinting on the incoming optical wavefront a functionality712 of choice through tailored local interactions of the phase,1315 amplitude,1618 and polarization.1921 The further development of this field entails not only endeavors to optimize the static metasurface performance for certain functionalities2224 but also most importantly techniques for tunable/reprogrammable metasurfaces that can be flexibly controlled on demand and in real time.2527 In the terahertz and optical regimes, dynamic metasurfaces have mainly been achieved by utilizing the response of tunable materials to external stimuli, such as optical pump,2831 heating,3234 and bias voltage.3538 Nevertheless, limited by the current techniques of fabrication and modulation, these metasurfaces have been limited to simultaneous tuning of a large portion of the meta-atoms, and thus can only be switched among a limited number of operations.

    Copy Citation Text
    Quan Xu, Xiaoqiang Su, Xueqian Zhang, Lijuan Dong, Lifeng Liu, Yunlong Shi, Qiu Wang, Ming Kang, Andrea Alù, Shuang Zhang, Jiaguang Han, Weili Zhang. Mechanically reprogrammable Pancharatnam–Berry metasurface for microwaves[J]. Advanced Photonics, 2022, 4(1): 016002
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