• Advanced Photonics
  • Vol. 4, Issue 3, 034001 (2022)
Milad Gholipour Vazimali1 and Sasan Fathpour1、2、*
Author Affiliations
  • 1University of Central Florida, CREOL, College of Optics and Photonics, Orlando, Florida, United States
  • 2University of Central Florida, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Orlando, Florida, United States
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    DOI: 10.1117/1.AP.4.3.034001 Cite this Article
    Milad Gholipour Vazimali, Sasan Fathpour. Applications of thin-film lithium niobate in nonlinear integrated photonics[J]. Advanced Photonics, 2022, 4(3): 034001 Copy Citation Text show less

    Abstract

    Photonics on thin-film lithium niobate (TFLN) has emerged as one of the most pursued disciplines within integrated optics. Ultracompact and low-loss optical waveguides and related devices on this modern material platform have rejuvenated the traditional and commercial applications of lithium niobate for optical modulators based on the electro-optic effect, as well as optical wavelength converters based on second-order nonlinear effects, e.g., second-harmonic, sum-, and difference-frequency generations. TFLN has also created vast opportunities for applications and integrated solutions for optical parametric amplification and oscillation, cascaded nonlinear effects, such as low-harmonic generation; third-order nonlinear effects, such as supercontinuum generation; optical frequency comb generation and stabilization; and nonclassical nonlinear effects, such as spontaneous parametric downconversion for quantum optics. Recent progress in nonlinear integrated photonics on TFLN for all these applications, their current trends, and future opportunities and challenges are reviewed.

    1 Introduction

    The excellent electro-optic (EO) and nonlinear optical properties of lithium niobate (LiNbO3 or LN) have long established it as a prevailing photonic material for the long-haul telecom modulator and wavelength-converter markets. Indeed, the first nonlinear experiment in any waveguide platform was a demonstration of Cherenkov radiation from titanium-diffused LN.1 Conventional LN waveguides are most commonly formed by in-diffusion of titanium (Ti) dopants2 or by the proton exchange process.3 However, these conventional lithium niobate optical waveguides have a low index-contrast, hence are bulky compared with modern integrated platforms, such as silicon photonics. The bulkiness impedes photonic circuit implementations and imposes high optical power requirements for nonlinear applications.

    Copy Citation Text
    Milad Gholipour Vazimali, Sasan Fathpour. Applications of thin-film lithium niobate in nonlinear integrated photonics[J]. Advanced Photonics, 2022, 4(3): 034001
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