Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are transverse-magnetic (TM) surface waves propagating along a conductor–dielectric interface. They are excited through coupling electromagnetic fields to electron plasma oscillations in the conductor . These surface waves exponentially decay in both media and have their maximum amplitude at the interface. Because of the strong localization, they are highly sensitive to changes in the surface dielectric environment. In surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors, this sensitivity is exploited to detect minute changes of the dielectric’s refractive index, which enables noncontact, real-time, and label-free sensing and detection.
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