Polarization-dependent nonlinear optical response in GeSe2
Ouyang Hao, Hu Si-Yang, Shen Man-Ling, Zhang Chen-Xi, Cheng Xiang-Ai, and Jiang Tian
Germanium diselenide (GeSe2), a layered IV-VI semiconductor, has an in-plane anisotropic structure and a wide band gap, exhibiting unique optical, electrical, and thermal properties. In this paper, polarization axis Raman spectrum and linear absorption spectrum are used to characterize the crystal axis orientation and energy band characteristics of GeSe2 flake, respectively. Based on the results, a micro-domain I scan system is used to study the optical nonlinear absorption mechanism of GeSe2 near the resonance band. The results show that the nonlinear absorption mechanism in GeSe2 is a superposition of saturation absorption and excited state absorption, and is strongly dependent on the polarization and wavelength of incident light. Under near-resonance excitation (450 nm), the excited state absorption is more greatly dependent on polarization. With different polarizations of incident light, the modulation depth can be changed from 4.6% to 9.9%; for non-resonant excitation (400 nm), the modulation depth only changes from 7.0% to 9.7%. At the same time, compared with saturation absorption, the polarization-dependent excited state absorption is greatly affected by the distance away from the resonance excitation wavelength.
  • Jan. 05, 2021
  • Acta Physica Sinica
  • Vol.69 Issue, 18 184212-1 (2020)
  • DOI:10.7498/aps.69.20200443
All-optical devices based on two-dimensional materials
Xu Yi-Quan, and Wang Cong
The leap in communication technology in recent years has brought new challenges to the compactness, modulation speed, working bandwidth and control efficiency of modulation equipment. The discovery of graphene has led the two-dimensional materials to develop rapidly, and a series of new materials have continuously emerged, such as MXene, black phosphorus, transition metal sulfides, etc. These new two-dimensional materials have excellent nonlinear optical effects, strong light-matter interaction, and ultra-wide working bandwidth. Using their thermo-optic effect, nonlinear effect and the combination with optical structure, the needs of ultra-fast modulation in optical communication can be met. Compact, ultra-fast, and ultra-wide will become the tags for all-optical modulation of two-dimensional materials in the future. This article focuses on all-optical devices based on thermo-optical effects and non-linear effects of two-dimensional materials, and introduces fiber-type Mach-Zehnder interferometer structures, Michelson interferometer structures, polarization interferometer structures, and micro-ring structures. In this paper, the development status of all-optical devices is discussed from the perspectives of response time, loss, driving energy, extinction ratio, and modulation depth. Finally, we review the latest developments, analyze the challenges and opportunities faced by all-optical devices, and propose that all-optical devices should be developed in the direction of ring resonators and finding better new two-dimensional materials. We believe that all-optical devices will maintain high-speed development, acting as a cornerstone to promote the progress of all-optical systems.
  • Jan. 05, 2021
  • Acta Physica Sinica
  • Vol.69 Issue, 18 184216-1 (2020)
  • DOI:10.7498/aps.69.20200654
Axially-distributed bubble-bubble interaction under a coustic excitation in pipeline
Li Xiang, Chen Yong, Feng Hao, and Qi Lei
Acoustically-excited bubble dynamics is the foundation of pipeline bubble detection based on acoustic technology. Due to the existence of multiple bubbles in pipeline flow, the Bjerknes forces among arbitrary bubbles under acoustic excitation may enforce bubble-bubble interaction and then change the features of bubble dynamics. Based on traditional free bubble’s Rayleigh-Plesset (R-P) model, this paper tries to establish bubble-bubble interaction model in consideration of the second Bjerknes force and bubble distribution in the pipeline axial direction. Meanwhile, the influence of finite wave speed in compressible fluid is considered. The proposed model is numerically calculated by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Firstly, the differences in bubble feature between the free bubble’s R-P model and bubble-bubble interaction model are compared under excitation with different frequencies and amplitudes. Results show that the differences in bubble dynamics are minor when the bubble’s distance is large enough. When the bubble’s distance is fixed, the differences are significant on condition that the frequency of acoustic excitation is nearly the resonant frequency of bubbles. Secondly, through establishing compressible model and incompressible fluid model, we compare the differences between the two models. Numerical calculations show that the second Bjerknes force under the compressible assumption acts as an external force and forces the bubble to vibrate. On the other hand, the second Bjerknes force under the incompressible assumption changes the dynamics of bubble-bubble interaction as well as the resonant features. Finally, we study the effect of bubble-bubble distance and bubble’s axial position on bubble vibration characteristics. The bubble-bubble distance affects the second Bjerknes force and may lead the bubbles to vibrate nonlinearly. The bubble’s axial position changes the phase of external acoustic force and leads to the difference in initial vibration feature. When this difference is coupled with the second Bjerknes force, the bubble-bubble interaction may be changed even into nonlinear vibration, leading the bubble’s oscillation spectrum to differ from linear vibrations significantly. These results demonstrate that the resonant state of a small bubble may be converted into nonlinear vibration state if the second Bjerknes force is present. On the other hand, the resonant state of a large bubble can keep linear vibration when the second Bjerknes force is not obvious.
  • Jan. 05, 2021
  • Acta Physica Sinica
  • Vol.69 Issue, 18 184703-1 (2020)
  • DOI:10.7498/aps.69.20200546
Multiple aperture underwater imaging algorithm based on polarization information fusion
Liu Bin, Zhao Peng-Xiang, Zhao Xia, Luo Yue, and Zhang Li-Chao
Underwater optical imaging is the key technology to explore the underwater mystery. However, due to the absorption and backscattering effects of the media in the underwater environment, the image acquired by the detector will be severely degraded. In order to obtain the effective underwater scene information, it is necessary to restore the acquired underwater image. The restoration technology based on differential polarization is one of the main methods of restoring the underwater images, which can suppress the background scattered light by the common-mode suppression between orthogonal polarization graphs, thus realizing the restoration of underwater image. However, the relevant research shows that the restoration effect of this method is general for the underwater non-uniform light field. The main reason is that the estimation errors of polarization degree and background scattering intensity under the condition of the non-uniform underwater light field are large. Out of the above problem, in this paper we present the multiple aperture underwater imaging technology of fused polarization information. The method uses the camera array to realize the large virtual aperture imaging system, thus obtaining the wide-angle light field information, and then to fuse the depth information of the scene to realize the accurate estimation of background scattering light intensity and polarization degree under the condition of underwater non-uniform light field. The estimated parameter value can better reflect the global characteristics of the scene. Through the imaging experiments on the targets with different polarization degrees in the turbid underwater environment, comparing with the current advanced restoration algorithm, the results show that the proposed method can effectively solve the problems of background scattering and polarization degree significant estimation error caused by non-uniform underwater light field, and obtain high-quality restoration results. Through the contrast imaging experiment of the target in the underwater environment with different turbidity concentrations, the results show that with the increase of turbidity concentration of the water, the image recovery effect of the method in this paper is gradually weakened. However, it still has a good restoration effect at a large concentration. At the same time, imaging experiments are conducted on targets in underwater environments with different sediment concentrations. The results show that the method proposed in this paper can also obtain a better restoration image in the turbid water environment containing sediment.
  • Jan. 05, 2021
  • Acta Physica Sinica
  • Vol.69 Issue, 18 184202-1 (2020)
  • DOI:10.7498/aps.69.20200471
High sensitivity fiber displacement sensor based compound ring laser cavity with linear variation of beat frequency signal
Tian Jing, Hou Mei-Jiang, Jiang Yang, Zhang Hong-Xu, Bai Guang-Fu, and Feng Hao
A novel fiber sensor based compound ring laser cavity with linear variation of frequency is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The compound ring laser cavity is comprised of a ring cavity and a straight cavity. This system can generate the beat frequency spectrum by employing an erbium doped fiber amplifier, a fiber Bragg grating is used as a sensor head and the straight cavity reflector, a π phase shifted fiber Bragg grating serves as a microwave photonic passband filter. The principle of the proposed sensor is theoretically analyzed, showing that as the displacement increases the beat frequency decreases, and there exists a linear relationship between displacement change and beat frequency shift. In experiment, it is shown that the sensor has a high sensitivity of about 86.19 kHz/mm and can achieve a good linear response (R2 = 0.9973), and that the minimum monitored displacement is about 10 μm. The measurement results demonstrate that the sensor is accurate, sensitive, and the proposed sensor system has a compact and simple structure, which makes it convenient for more applications in future.
  • Jan. 05, 2021
  • Acta Physica Sinica
  • Vol.69 Issue, 18 184217-1 (2020)
  • DOI:10.7498/aps.69.20200385
Migration characteristics of droplet condensation on end surface of single-finger microgripper
Fan Zeng-Hua, Rong Wei-Bin, Liu Zi-Xiao, Gao Jun, and Tian Ye-Bing
Liquid droplet is a prerequisite for micro-robot based on liquid medium. The investigation of the migration characteristics of condensed droplets on the end surface of a single-finger microgripper is of significance for obtaining stable droplets. The principle of flexible operation for micro-components using droplet condensation is analyzed first. The liquid bridge force acting on a microsphere is derived. A growth model of condensed droplet on the tip of a single-finger microgripper is established, including single-droplet growth, droplet coalesce, droplet movement, and pining effect. Condensation process on the tip of single-finger microgripper with a diameter of 130-400 μm is observed experimentally. Small droplets are formed by directly growing with a big growth rate in the initial stage, then the droplet growth is determined by droplet coalesce. The experimental results show that a single droplet is formed on the end surface after direct growth and droplets coalesce. The maximum droplet volume of 5.5 nL appears on the tip of a single-finger actuator with a diameter of 400 μm under the conditions of surface temperature of –5 °C, room temperature of 24 °C and humidity of 37%. The stability of the formed droplets is dominated by temperature gradients and edge effects during growth process. The distribution of condensed droplets is asymmetric while the microgripper is placed on a cooling surface with temperature gradient. A big growth rate is shown in a low temperature range. A single asymmetric droplet with an offset of 13 μm with respect to the axis of the actuator is formed, which is caused by the temperature gradient. A stable contact angle of 112° is obtained on the end surface of a single-finger microgripper with a diameter of 137 μm because of edge effect using the ambient temperature of 24 °C and humidity of 42%. Condensed droplets located on the end surface of hydrophobic microgripper are more stable than the untreated microgripper. Compared with the droplet formation (0.3 nL) on an untreated microgripper with a diameter of 150 μm, a lager stable droplet of 0.4 nL is obtained on the end face of a small microgripper with a diameter of 130 μm because of the hydrophobic action. The validity of theoretical analysis is verified by experimental results. The experimental investigation of the migration characteristics of condensed droplets on the end surface of a single-finger microgripper shows that the droplet shape can be changed by adjusting the temperature gradient and hydrophilic/hydrophobic performance, which plays an important role in achieving a stable droplet on the end surface.
  • Jan. 05, 2021
  • Acta Physica Sinica
  • Vol.69 Issue, 18 186801-1 (2020)
  • DOI:10.7498/aps.69.20200463
Characteristics and mechanism of a triggered lightning with two polarity reversals of charges transferred to ground
Tang Guo-Ying, Sun Zhu-Ling, Jiang Ru-Bin, Li Feng-Quan, Liu Ming-Yuan, Liu Kun, and Qie Xiu-Shu
Characteristics of a triggered bipolar lightning flash obtained in the Shandong triggering lightning experiment (SHATLE) are analyzed based on simultaneous observation results of lightning very high frequency (VHF) interferometer map, channel-base current, fast electric field change and high-speed optical images. The flash lasts about 315 ms with only the initial continuous current (ICC). As the polarity of charges transferred to the ground varies from negative to positive and then to negative, the ICC can be mainly divided into three stages including the first negative ICC stage, positive ICC stage, and second negative ICC stage, respectively, for 152.755 ms, 87.225 ms and 75.02 ms. Charges transferred to the ground during the three stages are about –40.0 C, +13.3 C and –1.0 C, respectively, with the peak current of about –3.8 kA, 1.6 kA and –2.25 kA. According to the VHF interferometer map, during the first negative ICC stage, the upward positive leader (UPL) initiated from the top of the wire as negative charges starts to be transferred to the ground. The UPL develops at a two-dimensional (2D) speed of 3.7 × 104 m/s into the cloud and multiple positive branches develop in the form of small-scale and dense recoil leaders, keeping the increase of negative charge transferred to the ground. Then a negative leader (NL) initiates on a previously ionized positive branch channel and develops into the virgin air horizontally as a floating channel at a 2D propagation speed of 1.59 × 105 m/s. About 28.816 ms later after the NL develops, a negative pulse is detected in the fast electric field change, caused by a negative polarity breakdown discharge from the grounding trunk channel to the floating channel which is observed for the first time. Then about 39 μs later, the first polarity of the channel-base current changes from negative to positive, and rapidly reaches a positive peak in 1.75 ms. Subsequently, with the positive ICC decreasing, the negative leader gradually terminates about 65.85 ms after the first polarity reversal, and then 21.38 ms later the channel-base current slowly changes to the recognizable negative polarity as the second polarity reversal. A recoil leader generating in a previously ionized positive branch channel connects to the trunk channel, resulting in the initial continuous current pulse (ICCP) during the second negative ICC stage. Then several negative recoil leaders occur, tracing back to the previous positive channels without obvious current changes until the flash ends. Based on the analysis, the positive branch channel persistently transfers negative charge to the ground in the whole discharge process by the positive breakdown on the tip or the negative recoil leaders retrograding along the previous positive channels. The trunk channel is connected to the floating channel through negative breakdown discharges, linking at the positive charge accumulation area at the tail end of the negative leader or the positive polar end of a bidirectional leader towards the trunk channel, if the negative leader develops as a bidirectional leader later. Then, the net charge transferred to the ground is dominantly positive and the reversal of first channel current polarity occurs. With the negative leader disappearing, the supply of positive charge ceases, so the current polarity reverses again (the second reversal). Connection of the negative leader to the grounding trunk channel and continuous development of the positive leader are inferred to play an important role in reversing the two current polarities. In this case, the negative leader developing in virgin air might be initiated transversely in an ionized positive channel or from the end of a decayed positive leader branch of the ionized positive channel which is small and undistinguishable from the VHF interferometer map.
  • Jan. 05, 2021
  • Acta Physica Sinica
  • Vol.69 Issue, 18 189201-1 (2020)
  • DOI:10.7498/aps.69.20200374