• Journal of Natural Resources
  • Vol. 35, Issue 12, 12002831 (2020)
CONG Li1、*, YU Jia-ping1、2, and WANG Ling-en3
Author Affiliations
  • 1School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
  • 2School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • 3Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
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    Abstract

    The interaction between human beings and wild animals has a profound and complex history. Wildlife tourism has gradually been seen as a compatible medium for people to interact with nature and wild animals. Along with the increasing demand in China, the supply of wildlife-themed tourist attractions, to some extent, has disordered competition, resulting in a waste of resources. Therefore, it is necessary to sort and analyze the resource base of semi-consumptive wildlife tourist attractions in China. Selecting 574 semi-consumptive wildlife tourism attractions in China from 1906 to 2019 as objects of study, this paper analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution, evolution characteristics as well as the related influencing factors of semi-consumptive wildlife tourist attractions in China, using models such as inter-annual variability index, nearest neighbor index, geographic concentration index, the Gini coefficient and the nuclear density analysis. The results show that: (1) In terms of time, the opening time of semi-consumptive wildlife tourist attractions in China is scattered, and can be roughly divided into four stages, namely the exploration stage (1906-1948), rapid development stage (1949-1959), slow development stage (1960-1992) and high-speed development stage (1993-2019). (2) In terms of space, the attractions present a cohesive distribution, and are geographically concentrated. The development between regions is highly unbalanced. Three high-density areas have formed with Beijing, Jiangsu-Zhejiang-Shanghai and Guangzhou as cores. Overall, there are more attractions in the eastern and southern coastal areas and less in the western part of China, with a transition in central China. Over time, the cohesion form continues and geographic concentration index gradually decreases approaching the assumed average level. However, the growth between regions is increasingly unbalanced. (3) The distribution of wildlife tourist attractions is influenced by development of history and national policies concerning the protection of wildlife animals, and has a certain positive correlation with the local factors such as population, the degree of economic development and the scale of tourism development. The attractions tend to be located in areas with great regional advantages, high population density, developed economy and leading tourism development. The research conclusion provides an overall cognition of spatial and temporal distribution of semi-consumptive wildlife attractions in China and will be the scientific basis and reference for investors and relevant managers to promote the further development and planning of wildlife tourism in the future.

    人类与野生动物间的互动关系历史深远且错综复杂。从原始的捕杀猎食、图腾崇拜,到农业社会的驯化圈养,再到文明社会的和谐共处,二者之间的关系也在不断演变[1]。随着工业化的发展,各种环境问题频现,非人类中心主义的环境伦理观提出要关注野生动物的生命权,主张人类与野生动物和谐共处,倡导非资源消费型利用方式[2,3,4]。野生动物旅游被认为能够较好地促进生物多样性保护、增加社区居民就业、提供自然教育与旅游体验机会,因此在世界范围内得到了蓬勃发展[5,6,7,8]。据统计,全球每年有1200万次与野生动物相关的旅行,并以大约每年10%的速度增长,对各个国家的经济贡献可多达1550亿美元[9]。在全球每11个旅游岗位中就有1个工作机会与野生动物旅游相关[10]。同样,野生动物旅游在我国也呈蓬勃发展状态。1906年,我国第一家野生动物旅游景区——北京动物园成立。经统计,到2019年3月我国野生动物景区数量已达500多家。在市场需求方面,虽尚无精准数字统计该类型的游客数量,但节假日出游结果表明,游客对以野生动物为对象的景区需求旺盛,如四川大熊猫繁育与养殖基地、广州长隆野生动物园、珠海长隆海洋王国、东北虎林园等野生动物旅游景区都成为出游的热点之选,尤其受到亲子市场的欢迎。

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    Li CONG, Jia-ping YU, Ling-en WANG. Spatiotemporal evolution and its influencing factors of semi-consumptive wildlife tourist attractions in China[J]. Journal of Natural Resources, 2020, 35(12): 2831
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    Received: Nov. 6, 2019
    Accepted: --
    Published Online: May. 8, 2021
    The Author Email: CONG Li (congli1980@163.com)