• Chinese Optics Letters
  • Vol. 20, Issue 10, 103601 (2022)
Linda Shao1, Jin Zhang1, Ivan D. Rukhlenko2, and Weiren Zhu1、*
Author Affiliations
  • 1Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
  • 2Institute of Photonics and Optical Science, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia
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    DOI: 10.3788/COL202220.103601 Cite this Article
    Linda Shao, Jin Zhang, Ivan D. Rukhlenko, Weiren Zhu. Electrically reconfigurable microwave metasurfaces [Invited][J]. Chinese Optics Letters, 2022, 20(10): 103601 Copy Citation Text show less

    Abstract

    Metasurfaces are ultrathin metamaterials constructed by planar meta-atoms with tailored electromagnetic responses. They have attracted tremendous attention owing to their ability to freely control the propagation of electromagnetic waves. With active elements incorporated into metasurface designs, one can realize tunable and reconfigurable metadevices with functionalities controlled by external stimuli, opening up a new platform to dynamically manipulate electromagnetic waves. In this article, we review the recent progress on tunable and reconfigurable metasurfaces, focusing on their operation principles and practical applications. We describe the approaches to the engineering of reconfigurable metasurfaces categorized into different classes based on the available active materials or elements, which can offer uniform manipulations of electromagnetic waves. We further summarize the recent achievements on programmable metasurfaces with constitutional meta-atoms locally tuned by external stimuli, which can dynamically control the wavefronts of electromagnetic waves. Finally, we discuss time-modulated metasurfaces, which are meaningful to exploit the temporal dimension by applying a dynamic switching of the coding sequence. The review is concluded by our outlook on possible future directions and existing challenges in this fast developing field.

    1. Introduction

    Metamaterials are artificially engineered electromagnetic (EM) materials achieved by structuring subwavelength metallic and/or dielectric composites (e.g., “meta-atoms”) with pre-designed EM responses[14]. The concept of artificial media was initially proposed to construct the so-called left-handed metamaterials with simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability for the purpose of achieving negative reflection[57] and super imaging[811]. Later, transformation optics was developed, and significant efforts have been devoted to the design of metamaterial-based devices for engineering EM spaces[1216]. Metamaterials have shown unique prospects in the manipulation of EM waves that leads to a series of new types of metadevices[1721]. However, many metamaterials realized so far have complex structure, large sizes, and relatively high losses, which hinder their practical use.

    Linda Shao, Jin Zhang, Ivan D. Rukhlenko, Weiren Zhu. Electrically reconfigurable microwave metasurfaces [Invited][J]. Chinese Optics Letters, 2022, 20(10): 103601
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