• Advanced Photonics
  • Vol. 4, Issue 3, 034002 (2022)
Haoyi Yu1、2, Qiming Zhang1、2, Xi Chen1、2, Haitao Luan1、2, and Min Gu1、2、*
Author Affiliations
  • 1University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Institute of Photonic Chips, Shanghai, China
  • 2University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, School of Optical-Electrical and Computer Engineering, Centre for Artificial-Intelligence Nanophotonics, Shanghai, China
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    DOI: 10.1117/1.AP.4.3.034002 Cite this Article
    Haoyi Yu, Qiming Zhang, Xi Chen, Haitao Luan, Min Gu. Three-dimensional direct laser writing of biomimetic neuron interfaces in the era of artificial intelligence: principles, materials, and applications[J]. Advanced Photonics, 2022, 4(3): 034002 Copy Citation Text show less

    Abstract

    The creation of biomimetic neuron interfaces (BNIs) has become imperative for different research fields from neural science to artificial intelligence. BNIs are two-dimensional or three-dimensional (3D) artificial interfaces mimicking the geometrical and functional characteristics of biological neural networks to rebuild, understand, and improve neuronal functions. The study of BNI holds the key for curing neuron disorder diseases and creating innovative artificial neural networks (ANNs). To achieve these goals, 3D direct laser writing (DLW) has proven to be a powerful method for BNI with complex geometries. However, the need for scaled-up, high speed fabrication of BNI demands the integration of DLW techniques with ANNs. ANNs, computing algorithms inspired by biological neurons, have shown their unprecedented ability to improve efficiency in data processing. The integration of ANNs and DLW techniques promises an innovative pathway for efficient fabrication of large-scale BNI and can also inspire the design and optimization of novel BNI for ANNs. This perspective reviews advances in DLW of BNI and discusses the role of ANNs in the design and fabrication of BNI.

    1 Introduction

    Over the past two decades, the research interest in neuron science and artificial intelligence (AI) has increased dramatically,13 as progress in neuron science is expected to lead to a higher level of understanding the brain, and eventually the creation of smarter artificial neural networks (ANNs).4,5 This co-dependence of technology and scientific research in biology will inevitably end with the merging of natural and artificial systems. However, such an endeavor remains a formidable task, as our current state of engineering does not allow for seamless integration of those two naturally dissimilar systems. Toward this aim, biomimicry6 is regarded as an innovative solution in biofabrication and biological applications, introducing models and designs from nature.79 Plenty of collaborative brain projects have been proposed around the globe, including the Brain Initiative,10 the Human Brain Project,11,12 China Brain Project,13 Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies,14 and the Brain Alliance.15 These projects have stimulated an intense research field to create various two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) biomimetic neuron interfaces (BNIs),1619 where biological neuron tissues could be integrated into an artificial extracellular matrix2022 to rebuild, understand,2326 and improve neuronal functions in neuron tissue engineering,21,2730 and also enable physicists to achieve novel BNIs toward the development of ANNs.6,31,32

    Copy Citation Text
    Haoyi Yu, Qiming Zhang, Xi Chen, Haitao Luan, Min Gu. Three-dimensional direct laser writing of biomimetic neuron interfaces in the era of artificial intelligence: principles, materials, and applications[J]. Advanced Photonics, 2022, 4(3): 034002
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