Research on the evolution of the global pattern of natural gas flow nodes and the resource effect have important guiding significance for the scientific formulation of China’s natural gas development strategy. This study used the standard deviation ellipse (SDE) method to analyze the spatial pattern characteristics of export and import nodes, and then reveal the resource effect of pattern change. The following conclusions are drawn from the research: (1) The supply and demand nodes of natural gas in the world are moving eastward. The development of pipeline natural gas (PNG) export nodes in the east-west direction is gradually enhanced, and the nodes distribution gravity center shows a trend of eastward movement; the liquefied natural gas (LNG) export nodes distribution in the east-west and north-south directions shows a trend of dispersion, and the gravity center shows a significant northwest-southeast movement. (2) The PNG import nodes show a significant eastward movement, and the east-west direction of import nodes distribution has been continuously strengthened; the LNG import nodes have moved eastward as a whole and are centralized. (3) The high flow density areas of natural gas in the world are mainly concentrated in the Eurasian continent and its coastal countries, and the flow network shows the characteristics of key node control. The PNG mainly flows in the east-west direction, and the LNG flow direction is more complex. (4) With the continuous change of the spatial pattern of global natural gas flow nodes, a series of changes will take place in natural gas competition, communication relationships, and resource governance systems. China should speed up the shale gas industry revolution, continue to promote the diversification of overseas natural gas supply, contribute to the planning of international natural gas channels, strengthen the construction of Asia’s natural gas trade hubs and financial centers, and enhance China’s position in global natural gas governance.