• High Power Laser Science and Engineering
  • Vol. 9, Issue 4, 04000e57 (2021)
C. Emma1、*, J. Van Tilborg2、*, R. Assmann3, S. Barber2, A. Cianchi4, S. Corde5, M. E. Couprie6, R. D’Arcy3, M. Ferrario4, A. F. Habib7, B. Hidding7, M. J. Hogan1, C. B. Schroeder2, A. Marinelli1, M. Labat6, R. Li8, J. Liu8, A. Loulergue6, J. Osterhoff3, A. R. Maier3, B. W. J. McNeil9、10, and W. Wang8
Author Affiliations
  • 1SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  • 2BELLA Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
  • 3Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg, Germany
  • 4INFN-LNF, 00044 Frascati, Italy
  • 5LOA, ENSTA Paris, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Institut Polytechnique de Paris, 91762 Palaiseau, France
  • 6Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • 7Scottish Centre for the Application of Plasma-Based Accelerators SCAPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance SUPA, Glasgow G1 1XQ, UK
  • 8Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, China
  • 9Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance SUPA, Glasgow G1 1XQ, UK
  • 10Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD, UK
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    DOI: 10.1017/hpl.2021.39 Cite this Article
    C. Emma, J. Van Tilborg, R. Assmann, S. Barber, A. Cianchi, S. Corde, M. E. Couprie, R. D’Arcy, M. Ferrario, A. F. Habib, B. Hidding, M. J. Hogan, C. B. Schroeder, A. Marinelli, M. Labat, R. Li, J. Liu, A. Loulergue, J. Osterhoff, A. R. Maier, B. W. J. McNeil, W. Wang. Free electron lasers driven by plasma accelerators: status and near-term prospects[J]. High Power Laser Science and Engineering, 2021, 9(4): 04000e57 Copy Citation Text show less

    Abstract

    Owing to their ultra-high accelerating gradients, combined with injection inside micrometer-scale accelerating wakefield buckets, plasma-based accelerators hold great potential to drive a new generation of free-electron lasers (FELs). Indeed, the first demonstration of plasma-driven FEL gain was reported recently, representing a major milestone for the field. Several groups around the world are pursuing these novel light sources, with methodology varying in the use of wakefield driver (laser-driven or beam-driven), plasma structure, phase-space manipulation, beamline design, and undulator technology, among others. This paper presents our best attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of the global community efforts towards plasma-based FEL research and development.

    1 Introduction

    In plasma-based accelerators, the ionized plasma in a gas cell or gas jet can sustain ultra-high accelerating fields of the order of 10–100 GV/m, which is 2–3 orders of magnitude larger than in conventional radiofrequency (RF)-based accelerators. It is this high field that enables acceleration by multi-gigaelectronvolt energies in centimeter-scale plasmas. At densities of order ${10}^{15}{-}{10}^{18}$ cm ${}^{-3}$ , the plasma wakefield can be best described as having a longitudinally oscillating density profile at the plasma wavelength ${\lambda}_{\mathrm{p}}$ , trailing a driver that propagates close to the vacuum speed of light. Here $\lambda \left[\mu \mathrm{m}\right]=33/\sqrt{n\left[{10}^{18}\,{\mathrm{cm}}^{-3}\right]}$ , which reveals the scale length of the wakefield period to be of the order of 100 μm. The rapid acceleration of background-injected electrons to relativistic energies, inside the micrometer-sized structured plasma environment, allows the trapped electron beam to remain short, dense, and free of significant space-charge-driven emittance degradation. These high-brightness beams position plasma-based accelerators well as enabler of the advanced-accelerator free-electron laser (FEL)[1].

    Copy Citation Text
    C. Emma, J. Van Tilborg, R. Assmann, S. Barber, A. Cianchi, S. Corde, M. E. Couprie, R. D’Arcy, M. Ferrario, A. F. Habib, B. Hidding, M. J. Hogan, C. B. Schroeder, A. Marinelli, M. Labat, R. Li, J. Liu, A. Loulergue, J. Osterhoff, A. R. Maier, B. W. J. McNeil, W. Wang. Free electron lasers driven by plasma accelerators: status and near-term prospects[J]. High Power Laser Science and Engineering, 2021, 9(4): 04000e57
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