Contents 2 Issue (s), 13 Article (s)

Vol.3, Iss.3—May.1, 2021 • pp: 034001-036002 Spec. pp:

Vol.3, Iss.2—Mar.1, 2021 • pp: 024001-029901 Spec. pp:

Vol.3, Iss.3-May..1,2021
Reviews
Optical trapping with structured light: a review
Yuanjie Yang, Yu-Xuan Ren, Mingzhou Chen, Yoshihiko Arita, and Carmelo Rosales-Guzmán
Optical trapping describes the interaction between light and matter to manipulate micro-objects through momentum transfer. In the case of 3D trapping with a single beam, this is termed optical tweezers. Optical tweezers are a powerful and noninvasive tool for manipulating small objects, and have become indispensable in many fields, including physics, biology, soft condensed matter, among others. In the early days, optical trapping was typically accomplished with a single Gaussian beam. In recent years, we have witnessed rapid progress in the use of structured light beams with customized phase, amplitude, and polarization in optical trapping. Unusual beam properties, such as phase singularities on-axis and propagation invariant nature, have opened up novel capabilities to the study of micromanipulation in liquid, air, and vacuum. We summarize the recent advances in the field of optical trapping using structured light beams.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: May. 17, 2021
  • Vol.3 Issue, 3 034001 (2021)
Reviews
Advances in metal halide perovskite lasers: synthetic strategies, morphology control, and lasing emission
Zhiping Hu, Zhengzheng Liu, Zijun Zhan, Tongchao Shi, Juan Du, Xiaosheng Tang, and Yuxin Leng
In the past decade, lead halide perovskites have emerged as potential optoelectronic materials in the fields of light-emitting diode, solar cell, photodetector, and laser, due to their low-cost synthesis method, tunable bandgap, high quantum yield, large absorption, gain coefficient, and low trap-state densities. In this review, we present a comprehensive discussion of lead halide perovskite applications, with an emphasis on recent advances in synthetic strategies, morphology control, and lasing performance. In particular, the synthetic strategies of solution and vapor progress and the morphology control of perovskite nanocrystals are reviewed. Furthermore, we systematically discuss the latest development of perovskite laser with various fundamental performances, which are highly dependent on the dimension and size of nanocrystals. Finally, considering current challenges and perspectives on the development of lead halide perovskite nanocrystals, we provide an outlook on achieving high-quality lead perovskite lasers and expanding their practical applications.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Jun. 02, 2021
  • Vol.3 Issue, 3 034002 (2021)
Letters
Resolving and weighing the quantum orbits in strong-field tunneling ionization
Jia Tan, Shengliang Xu, Xu Han, Yueming Zhou, Min Li, Wei Cao, Qingbin Zhang, and Peixiang Lu
Tunneling ionization of atoms and molecules induced by intense laser pulses contains the contributions of numerous quantum orbits. Identifying the contributions of these orbits is crucial for exploring the application of tunneling and for understanding various tunneling-triggered strong-field phenomena. We perform a combined experimental and theoretical study to identify the relative contributions of the quantum orbits corresponding to the electrons tunneling ionized during the adjacent rising and falling quarter cycles of the electric field of the laser pulse. In our scheme, a perturbative second-harmonic field is added to the fundamental driving field. By analyzing the relative phase dependence of the signal in the photoelectron momentum distribution, the relative contributions of these two orbits are unambiguously determined. Our results show that their relative contributions sensitively depend on the longitudinal momentum and modulate with the transverse momentum of the photoelectron, which is attributed to the interference of the electron wave packets of the long orbit. The relative contributions of these orbits resolved here are important for the application of strong-field tunneling ionization as a photoelectron spectroscopy for attosecond time-resolved measurements.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: May. 25, 2021
  • Vol.3 Issue, 3 035001 (2021)
Research Articles
Anomalous unidirectional excitation of high-k hyperbolic modes using all-electric metasources
Zhiwei Guo, Yang Long, Haitao Jiang, Jie Ren, and Hong Chen
The unidirectional excitation of near-field optical modes is a fundamental prerequisite for many photonic applications, such as wireless power transfer and information communications. We experimentally construct all-electric Huygens and spin metasources and demonstrate anomalous unidirectional excitation of high-k hyperbolic modes in two types of hyperbolic metasurfaces. We use a Huygens metasource to study the unidirectional excitation of hyperbolic bulk modes in a planar hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM). Specifically, unidirectional excitation is the same as that in free space in the vertical direction, but opposite to that in free space in the horizontal direction. This anomalous unidirectional excitation is determined by the anisotropic HMM dispersion. In addition, we use a spin metasource to observe the anomalous photonic spin Hall effect in a planar hyperbolic waveguide. For a near-field source with a specific spin, the guide mode with a fixed directional wave vector is excited due to spin-momentum locking. Because the directions of momentum and energy flows in the HMM waveguide are opposite, the unidirectional excitation of hyperbolic guided modes is reversed. Our results not only uncover the sophisticated electromagnetic functionalities of metasources in the near-field but may also provide novel opportunities for the development of integrated optical devices.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Jun. 09, 2021
  • Vol.3 Issue, 3 036001 (2021)
Research Articles
Infrared upconversion imaging in nonlinear metasurfaces
Rocio Camacho-Morales, Davide Rocco, Lei Xu, Valerio Flavio Gili, Nikolay Dimitrov, Lyubomir Stoyanov, Zhonghua Ma, Andrei Komar, Mykhaylo Lysevych, Fouad Karouta, Alexander Dreischuh, Hark Hoe Tan, Giuseppe Leo, Costantino De Angelis, Chennupati Jagadish, Andrey E. Miroshnichenko, Mohsen Rahmani, and Dragomir N. Neshev
Infrared imaging is a crucial technique in a multitude of applications, including night vision, autonomous vehicle navigation, optical tomography, and food quality control. Conventional infrared imaging technologies, however, require the use of materials such as narrow bandgap semiconductors, which are sensitive to thermal noise and often require cryogenic cooling. We demonstrate a compact all-optical alternative to perform infrared imaging in a metasurface composed of GaAs semiconductor nanoantennas, using a nonlinear wave-mixing process. We experimentally show the upconversion of short-wave infrared wavelengths via the coherent parametric process of sum-frequency generation. In this process, an infrared image of a target is mixed inside the metasurface with a strong pump beam, translating the image from the infrared to the visible in a nanoscale ultrathin imaging device. Our results open up new opportunities for the development of compact infrared imaging devices with applications in infrared vision and life sciences.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Jun. 14, 2021
  • Vol.3 Issue, 3 036002 (2021)
Vol.3, Iss.2-Mar..1,2021
Reviews
Light field on a chip: metasurface-based multicolor holograms
Dandan Wen, Jasper J. Cadusch, Jiajun Meng, and Kenneth B. Crozier
Multicolor holography can faithfully record the color, depth, parallax, and other properties of scenes and have thus found numerous applications, for example, in optical document security, nonvolatile data storage, and virtual or augmented reality systems. Nanophotonic metasurfaces present multiple degrees of freedom to manipulate the properties of optical fields at visible wavelengths. These in turn provide opportunities for metasurface-based multicolor holography. We describe recent developments in multicolor metasurface holograms. These are categorized based on their color-separating mechanisms rather than their structural properties, such as whether they are plasmonic or dielectric. We hope this review will provide readers with new insights and thus help extend applications of metasurface-based multicolor holography to other fields.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Feb. 26, 2021
  • Vol.3 Issue, 2 024001 (2021)
Reviews
Photonic circuits written by femtosecond laser in glass: improved fabrication and recent progress in photonic devices
Dezhi Tan, Zhuo Wang, Beibei Xu, and Jianrong Qiu
Integrated photonics is attracting considerable attention and has found many applications in both classical and quantum optics, fulfilling the requirements for the ever-growing complexity in modern optical experiments and big data communication. Femtosecond (fs) laser direct writing (FLDW) is an acknowledged technique for producing waveguides (WGs) in transparent glass that have been used to construct complex integrated photonic devices. FLDW possesses unique features, such as three-dimensional fabrication geometry, rapid prototyping, and single step fabrication, which are important for integrated communication devices and quantum photonic and astrophotonic technologies. To fully take advantage of FLDW, considerable efforts have been made to produce WGs over a large depth with low propagation loss, coupling loss, bend loss, and highly symmetrical mode field. We summarize the improved techniques as well as the mechanisms for writing high-performance WGs with controllable morphology of cross-section, highly symmetrical mode field, low loss, and high processing uniformity and efficiency, and discuss the recent progress of WGs in photonic integrated devices for communication, topological physics, quantum information processing, and astrophotonics. Prospective challenges and future research directions in this field are also pointed out.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Mar. 10, 2021
  • Vol.3 Issue, 2 024002 (2021)
Reviews
Taking silicon photonics modulators to a higher performance level: state-of-the-art and a review of new technologies
Abdul Rahim, Artur Hermans, Benjamin Wohlfeil, Despoina Petousi, Bart Kuyken, Dries Van Thourhout, and Roel Baets
Optical links are moving to higher and higher transmission speeds while shrinking to shorter and shorter ranges where optical links are envisaged even at the chip scale. The scaling in data speed and span of the optical links demands modulators to be concurrently performant and cost-effective. Silicon photonics (SiPh), a photonic integrated circuit technology that leverages the fabrication sophistication of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, is well-positioned to deliver the performance, price, and manufacturing volume for the high-speed modulators of future optical communication links. SiPh has relied on the plasma dispersion effect, either in injection, depletion, or accumulation mode, to demonstrate efficient high-speed modulators. The high-speed plasma dispersion silicon modulators have been commercially deployed and have demonstrated excellent performance. Recent years have seen a paradigm shift where the integration of various electro-refractive and electro-absorptive materials has opened up additional routes toward performant SiPh modulators. These modulators are in the early years of their development. They promise to extend the performance beyond the limits set by the physical properties of silicon. The focus of our study is to provide a comprehensive review of contemporary (i.e., plasma dispersion modulators) and new modulator implementations that involve the integration of novel materials with SiPh.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Apr. 29, 2021
  • Vol.3 Issue, 2 024003 (2021)
Letters
Far-field super-resolution imaging by nonlinearly excited evanescent waves
Zhihao Zhou, Wei Liu, Jiajing He, Lei Chen, Xin Luo, Dongyi Shen, Jianjun Cao, Yaping Dan, Xianfeng Chen, and Wenjie Wan
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Apr. 01, 2021
  • Vol.3 Issue, 2 025001 (2021)
Research Articles
Glide symmetry for mode control and significant suppression of coupling in dual-strip SSPP transmission lines
Xiao Tian Yan, Wenxuan Tang, Jun Feng Liu, Meng Wang, Xin Xin Gao, and Tie Jun Cui
Glide symmetry, which is one kind of higher symmetry, is introduced in a special type of plasmonic metamaterial, the transmission lines (TLs) of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs), in order to control the dispersion characteristics and modal fields of the SSPPs. We show that the glide-symmetric TL presents merged pass bands and mode degeneracy, which lead to broad working bandwidth and extremely low coupling between neighboring TLs. Dual-conductor SSPP TLs with and without glide symmetry are arranged in parallel as two channels with very deep subwavelength separation (e.g., λ0 / 100 at 5 GHz) for the application of integrated circuits and systems. Mutual coupling between the hybrid channels is analyzed using coupled mode theory and characterized in terms of scattering parameters and near-field distributions. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the hybrid TL array obtains significantly more suppressed crosstalk than the uniform array of two nonglide symmetric TLs. Hence, it is concluded that the glide symmetry can be adopted to flexibly design the propagation of SSPPs and benefit the development of highly compact plasmonic circuits.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Feb. 27, 2021
  • Vol.3 Issue, 2 026001 (2021)
Research Articles
Wavefront-selective Fano resonant metasurfacesOn the Cover
Adam Overvig, and Andrea Alù
Fano resonances are conventionally understood as sharp spectral features with selectivity in the momentum-frequency domain, implying that they can be excited only by plane waves with specific frequencies and incident angles. We demonstrate that Fano resonances can be made generally selective in the space-frequency domain. They can be tailored to resonate only when excited by a frequency, polarization, and wavefront of choice. This generalization reveals that Fano systems are characterized by eigenwaves that scatter to their time-reversed image upon reflection. Although in conventional Fano systems this trivially occurs for normally incident plane waves, we show that, in general, the selected wavefront is locally retroreflected everywhere across the device. These results show that conventional Fano resonances are a subset of a broader dichroic phenomenon with spin, spatial, and spectral selectivity. We demonstrate these concepts with nonlocal metasurfaces whose governing principles are deeply rooted in the symmetry features of quasi-bound states in the continuum. Enhanced light–matter interactions and symmetry-protection make these phenomena uniquely suited for enriching applications in quantum optics, non-linear optics, augmented reality, and secure optical communications, laying the groundwork for a range of novel compact optical sources and devices.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Mar. 18, 2021
  • Vol.3 Issue, 2 026002 (2021)
Research Articles
Time-domain terahertz optoacoustics: manipulable water sensing and dampening
Jiao Li, Yixin Yao, Liwen Jiang, Shuai Li, Zhihao Yi, Xieyu Chen, Zhen Tian, and Weili Zhang
Radiation at terahertz frequencies can be used to analyze the structural dynamics of water and biomolecules, but applying the technique to aqueous solutions and tissues remains challenging since terahertz radiation is strongly absorbed by water. While this absorption enables certain analyses, such as the structure of water and its interactions with biological solutes, it limits the thickness of samples that can be analyzed, and it drowns out weaker signals from biomolecules of interest. We present a method for analyzing water-rich samples via time-domain terahertz optoacoustics over a 104-fold thickness ranging from microns to centimeters. We demonstrate that adjusting the temperature to alter the terahertz optoacoustic (THz-OA) signal of water improves the sensitivity with which it can be analyzed and, conversely, can reduce or even “silence” its signal. Temperature-manipulated THz-OA signals of aqueous solutions allow detection of solutes such as ions with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, and potentially provide more characteristic parameters related to both terahertz absorption and ultrasonic propagation. Terahertz optoacoustics may be a powerful tool for spectroscopy and potential imaging of aqueous solutions and tissues to explore molecular interactions and biochemical processes.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Apr. 01, 2021
  • Vol.3 Issue, 2 026003 (2021)
Research Articles
Multiscale label-free volumetric holographic histopathology of thick-tissue slides with subcellular resolution
Herve Hugonnet, Yeon Wook Kim, Moosung Lee, Seungwoo Shin, Ralph H. Hruban, Seung-Mo Hong, and YongKeun Park
Histopathology relies upon the staining and sectioning of biological tissues, which can be laborious and may cause artifacts and distort tissues. We develop label-free volumetric imaging of thick-tissue slides, exploiting refractive index distributions as intrinsic imaging contrast. The present method systematically exploits label-free quantitative phase imaging techniques, volumetric reconstruction of intrinsic refractive index distributions in tissues, and numerical algorithms for the seamless stitching of multiple three-dimensional tomograms and for reducing scattering-induced image distortion. We demonstrated label-free volumetric imaging of thick tissues with the field of view of 2 mm × 1.75 mm × 0.2 mm with a spatial resolution of 170 nm × 170 nm × 1400 nm. The number of optical modes, calculated as the reconstructed volume divided by the size of the point spread function, was ~20 giga voxels. We have also demonstrated that different tumor types and a variety of precursor lesions and pathologies can be visualized with the present method.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Apr. 29, 2021
  • Vol.3 Issue, 2 026004 (2021)