Quantum computing1 promises exponential speed-up in for such tasks as factorizing, simulating many-body quantum systems, and quantum machine learning. However, to achieve such computational speed-up is far from trivial. A universal quantum computer needs at least: (1) many qubits that can be individually coherently controlled; (2) many quantum gates/operations that can establish correlations among many qubits; and (3) fault-tolerance architecture that can correct the errors during computation, and hence output the correct answers. Each of these three requirements is highly demanding to realize.
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