Homestay tourism is booming, and it is becoming an important approach for tourism development. Homestay tourism is a product of the transformation of tourism from a focus on sightseeing to leisure vacations, and its forms of development are becoming increasingly diversified, deepened, and innovated, in order to adapt to tourists’ demands for leisure vacation consumption. Homestay is based on the strengthened support for tourism development, while tourism transformation and upgrading also need the assistance of emerging tourism formats such as homestay. The continuous integration of homestay and tourism makes the industries related to homestay tourism become continuously aggregated, and the chain of the homestay tourism industry becomes gradually extended, thus promoting the rapid development of a homestay tourism agglomeration area. The tourists’ initial understanding of the local sense of destination is based on dynamic contact with the local environmental form and the local experience gained by their own observations, analysis and personal experiences. Only after being interpreted and endowed with meaning by tourists, can homestay have tourism value. The appeal of homestay tourism is an important embodiment of the transformation of the tourism mode from traditional sightseeing to leisure vacations, and the perception of homestay tourism is of great significance to the study of tourism transformation and upgrading. In the process of domestic homestay development, the practice is always ahead of the theoretical research, while only a few studies have evaluated the support of homestay tourism agglomeration development. The research on the degree of support for residential development is of great significance to the shaping, construction, innovation, development and protection of tourism resources, tourism planning and other critical factors. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the degree of support for homestay tourism development from the perspective of tourists’ perceived value, in order to adapt to the new situation of homestay tourism development, and to promote quality development in tourist destinations, which is gaining more and more theoretical and practical significance.
2 Study of tourists’ perceived value
2.1 Tourist perception of value
The perceived value is the customer’s overall feeling of a product (or service) on the basis of giving and rewarding (
2.2 Tourists’ perceived value of homestay
Sign up for Journal of Resources and Ecology TOC Get the latest issue of Advanced Photonics delivered right to you！Sign up now
Perceived value is the main driving factor of homestay purchase intention, and it is also an important factor to consider in the development of homestay, which has become the focus of scholars at home and abroad. To some extent, the development of homestay tourism has become an important symbol for measuring the level of tourism development in a region. In many places, encouraging and supporting the development of a homestay tourist cluster is an important goal and means of homestay development (
3 Research design
There are many cities in the Yangtze River Delta, and the data for this study were obtained by way of field investigation and network investigation in key cities. This study was conducted in April and August 2018. The typical representative places of homestay accommodation in Zhejiang (such as the homestay tourism agglomeration area in West Lake, Mount Mogan, etc.) were the data collection points. This strategy relied on using the popularity of the homestay tourism agglomeration and the amount of tourist reception in the homestay tourism agglomeration area as the main indicators, to distribute and collect the questionnaire of homestay perception in the Yangtze River Delta. The research process is as follows: Firstly, this study summarizes the literature related to the perception of homestay tourism, and designs the questionnaire. Secondly, the authors used the Delphi method to improve the scientific nature of the questionnaire. Through in-depth interviews with academic experts, the staff of the China Tourism Association and the China Tourism Hotel Industry Association as well as the Zhejiang Tourism Association, homestay owners and media practitioners, the questionnaire was preliminarily revised. Eighty tourists were pre-investigated on the spot in April 2018 to ensure that the questionnaire questions were clear and the answers could accurately express the wishes of the investigators, and 30 measurement questions were selected to form the formal survey questionnaire. Thirdly, the formal research was conducted. A total of 400 questionnaires were issued, 380 questionnaires were collected, 21 invalid questionnaires were eliminated, and 359 valid questionnaires were finally used for analysis, for an effective rate of 94.47%.
4 Sample analysis of tourist perception of homestay
4.1 Demographic characteristics of homestay tourists
This paper analyzes the demographic characteristics of the homestay tourists sampled by SPSS22.0. The table of demographic characteristics of homestay tourists shows that: 1) males and females are more evenly distributed, with females higher than males; 2) in terms of age distribution, homestay tourists are mainly young people from 26 to 35 years old and middle aged people from 36 to 45 years old, and young people tend to pursue personalized service while middle-aged people pursue accommodation quality, which coincides with the characteristics of homestay providing personalized services and high-quality accommodation; 3) homestay tourists with a bachelor’s degree or above account for 69.1% and homestay tourists with a higher education background are more receptive to the new quality accommodation facilities; and 4) family travel accounts for the majority of homestay tourists and household income is more than 15000 yuan per month, accounting for 37.8 %.
4.2 Behavior characteristics of homestay tourists
4.2.1 Travel frequency to the Yangtze River Delta
In this survey, the proportion of people who travel to the Yangtze River Delta more than 4 times per year accounts for 38.2%, and those who travel only once account for 32%. People who travel frequently to the Yangtze River Delta will choose accommodations other than the hotels. Those who first traveled to the Yangtze River Delta and chose to stay might also be attracted by the Yangtze River Delta homestay brand effect.
Homestay tourist frequency to the Yangtze River Delta
4.2.2 Reason for choosing homestay
Among the options for the reason for choosing homestay, relaxation had the highest observed value, at 71%. Staying in homestay not only meets the needs of accommodation, but also serves as a spiritual recuperation and source of relaxation. Cultural experience was at 54.8%, and it has always been one of the core attractions of homestay tourism. Sightseeing accounts for 34.4%, because homestay is generally located near the tourism-rich resource areas, surrounded by natural scenery, or rich in cultural heritage, where tourists can carry out common tourism activities. Tasting food accounts for 26.6%. Tasting local specialties has become an important part of tourism, and trying the host’s private food has become the purpose for many people to choose homestay.
The purpose of choosing homestay for tourists
4.2.3 Travelling companions and time of homestay tourism
The observed value of travelling with family is 73.4%, so family travel is still the mainstream mode, followed by friends, classmates, colleagues, business partners and netizens. In terms of the timing of the homestay, the percentage indicating it was a minor vacation is the highest, followed by weekends, winter and summer vacation. In this survey, many people chose to stay at any time, which may be related to homestay satisfying the travel habits of a variety of individual guest groups.
Travelling companions of homestay tourism
4.2.4 Access to homestay information
Among the options for access to homestay information, online travel websites account for 47.9%, so it is the main channel for obtaining homestay information. At the same time, the proportion indicating recommendation by relatives and friends is 21.2%, and the repurchase behavior of homestay is mainly realized among relatives and friends, so the word-of-mouth effect is very obvious. Specific community recommendations also account for 13.9%, indicating that the guest groups choosing homestay have a certain convergence.
Access to homestay information
4.2.5 Homestay rates acceptable to tourists
Among the acceptable homestay price options, the 200-300 yuan price range accounts for 34%, the 300-400 yuan price range makes up 25.9% and the over 400 yuan price range comprises about 23.6%. In terms of homestay accommodation grade, it is classified in the mid-to-low end accommodation type. At present, the amounts of middle and low-grade homestay options account for a large proportion, although high-end homestay accommodation is developing rapidly in the Yangtze River Delta. In particular, the high-end homestay represented by the area surrounding Mount Mogan is increasingly welcomed by the market.
Accommodation rates acceptable to tourists
4.3 Exploratory factor analysis
In order to evaluate the reliability, stability and consistency of the scale data, the reliability and validity should be analyzed. The greater the reliability, the smaller the standard errors in the sample. Generally, an alpha coefficient greater than or equal to 0.7 indicates high reliability; and an alpha coefficient between 0.35 and 0.7 indicates acceptable reliability. SPSS22.0 software was used to analyze the reliability of the questionnaire measurement index, and the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient of the total scale was 0.946, which is greater than 0.7. Therefore, the questionnaire data obtained in this paper belongs to the high reliability range, and usually such data can only be considered as acceptable.
Next, 18 factors of expressions of tourist perception are analyzed. KMO and Bartlett sphere tests were used to determine whether factor analysis was possible. These test results show that the KMO measure value is 0.931, which is greater than 0.7; and the Bartlett sphere test approximated chi-square value is 3502.808. Passing the Bartlett sphere test indicates that the correlation coefficient matrix has significant differences, indicating that it is suitable for factor analysis.
KMO and Bartlett Inspection
The factor analysis with maximum variance orthogonal rotation is used in order to retain the option that the eigenvalue is greater than 1 and the factor load is greater than 0.5. According to the meaning of homestay tourism perception contained in each factor, the analysis results extracted three main factors, respectively named facilities and environmental perception, cultural experience perception and service value perception. The perception of homestay tourism is then expanded along these three dimensions, and the variance contribution rates of the three factors are 25.067%, 22.093%, 15.149%, yielding a cumulative contribution rate of 62.309%.
Exploratory factor analysis
4.4 Model building and validation
4.4.1 Model testing
Based on the results of the exploratory factor analysis, the research model was constructed, which included three potential variables and 21 observation variables. Three hypotheses are put forward according to the relevant research results:
H1: there is a significant positive relationship between facilities and environmental perception and supporting development of the homestay tourism agglomeration area.
H2: there is a significant positive relationship between cultural experience perception and supporting development of the homestay tourism agglomeration area.
H3: there is a significant positive relationship between service value perception and supporting development of the homestay tourism agglomeration area.
4.4.2 Reliability and validity tests
Using SPSS to analyze the reliability and validity of the verified questionnaire, the results showed that 1) the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient of 359 documents was 0.946, indicating a good consistency; 2) the combined reliability (CR) was greater than 0.7, indicating that the observed variables were different; and 3) the average variance extraction was higher than the standard value of 0.5, indicating that each observed variable could reasonably explain the corresponding potential variables.
Model reliability and validity tests
AMOS 24.0 software is used to verify the data, and the factor load of each observed variable is greater than 0.5, so there is no need to delete any of the items. The following results are obtained by the AMOS software after processing this hypothesis model:
Analysis of structural equations
According to the model calculation, the standardized coefficient of the impact of facilities and environmental perception on the supporting development of homestay tourism is 0.724, and the P value is less than 0.05, indicating that the significance level of supporting development is acceptable. The standardized coefficient of the influence of cultural experience perception on the supporting development of homestay tourism is 0.813, and the P value is less than 0.01, indicating that the significance level of supporting development is better. The standardized coefficient of the influence of service value perception on the supporting development of homestay tourism is 0.692, and the P value is less than 0.05, indicating that the significance level of supporting development is acceptable.
5 The influence and mechanism of tourist perception on the development of homestay tourism
5.1 Homestay tourism development is substantially supported by facilities and environmental perception
The important factors supporting homestay tourism development are facilities and environment. The internal and external environment and facilities are very important. The architectural style and location of homestay should reflect the natural environment and humanistic environment. Good external environment and facilities are the primary perceptual elements which drive tourists to choose homestay and the basis for the development of homestay tourism. The internal environment and facilities should fulfill the basic functions of accommodation, and provide tourists with a different experience from normal hotel accommodation. The path coefficient of characteristic catering is 0.67, the path coefficient of cleanliness is 0.82, and the path coefficient of comfortable facilities and equipment is 0.78. The internal and external environment of a single dwelling combined contributes to the perceived value of the overall internal and external environment of the homestay tourism agglomeration area, thus promoting the good development of homestay tourism.
5.2 Cultural experience is the basic condition for the development of residential tourism
Cultural experience is one of the main reasons for tourists to choose homestay. Staying in homestay accommodation allows tourists to gain a deeper understanding of the local culture with a path coefficient of 0.94, and homestay accommodation can allow tourists to check the local lifestyle with a path coefficient of 0.90. Tourists can experience the local culture more deeply by staying in homestay accommodations with local characteristics and customs, enjoy a good interaction between the host and guests, and see the daily life of the local people. The characteristic cultural experience of homestay can be a unique form of accommodation, such as a wooden house, villa, starry house, cave, pit courtyard and other homestay forms with local characteristics; it can include themed activities provided by homestay such as reading, tea tasting, tie-dyeing, yoga, meditation, local opera and other themed activities; it can also be just to experience the slow pace of rural life. Through the analysis of tourists’ perceived value, we found that the development of residential tourism agglomeration must be based on culture, which can provide tourists with a good cultural experience as the basic condition for the development of homestay agglomeration.
5.3 Service value perception is an important factor influencing the development of homestay tourism
Service quality is the main component of tourists’ perceptions. According to the results of the questionnaire, tourists are generally satisfied with the service. The quality of service directly affects the satisfaction of tourists and the overall image of the homestay tourism agglomeration area. The path coefficient is 0.84 for convenience and ease of obtaining information on homestay reservations, and 0.92 for brand awareness. The perception of homestay service extends from the motivation of choosing homestay accommodation to the whole process of staying in the homestay accommodation to finally leaving the homestay. A major difference between homestay and hotel service is the contrast between personalized service and standardized service. Homestay aims to provide more enthusiastic, warm, and personalized service. The quality of service is the guarantee that the homestay tourists will buy the homestay products again, and it is also the key factor influencing the brand image of the homestay tourism agglomeration.
From the point of view of tourist value, facilities and environment perception is found to provide important support for the development of homestay tourism; cultural experience is the basic condition of homestay tourism development; and service value perception is the important factor influencing homestay tourism development. In the development process of the homestay tourism agglomeration area, attention must be paid to the development of facilities and environment, cultural experience and service value.
The factors supporting the development of the homestay tourism agglomeration can be divided into endogenous and exogenous dynamic factors. Endogenous dynamic factors include professional division of labor, competition and collaboration, innovation and diffusion. Among the exogenous dynamic factors are government policy leading factors, new squire driving factors, tourism consumption upgrading driving factors, homestay investment capital driving factors and others. Future research will further explore the quantitative study of the factors influencing support for homestay tourism development, and build a more perfect support evaluation system. Suggestions for future improvements include developing the leading homestay industry and rationally planning the development of homestay tourism. Homestay accommodation is the leading industry in the homestay tourism agglomeration area and the key to the competitive advantage of the agglomeration area.
From the perspective of the tourists’ perception, this paper uses statistical methods to identify the key factors influencing homestay tourism agglomeration development through the collection of questionnaires in key cities in the Yangtze River Delta. The standardized path coefficient of facilities and environment perception is found to be 0.724, while the standardized path coefficient of cultural experience perception is 0.813, and the standardized path system of service value perception is 0.692, all of which have significant influences on the development of homestay tourism agglomeration. Then, a structural equation model of tourist perception and the degree of support for homestay tourism is constructed. Facilities and environmental perception have important supporting roles for the development of the homestay tourism agglomeration area, and the combined internal and external environment of individual homestay components contributes to the overall perceived value of the internal and external environment of the homestay tourism agglomeration area, thus promoting the development of homestay tourism agglomeration. Cultural experience is the basic condition for the development of homestay tourism agglomeration, so the development of the homestay tourism agglomeration area must be based on culture, and it must be capable of providing tourists with good cultural experiences. Service value perception is another important factor in the development of homestay tourism agglomeration. Service quality is the main component of tourist perception, the guarantee for homestay tourists to buy homestay products again, and also the key factor influencing brand image in the
homestay tourism agglomeration area. Through the study of tourists’ homestay perceptions, we understand the path of the tourists’ cognition and emotion, and consider all the dimensions of regional homestay tourism development from the perspective of the tourism experience; the destination of homestay tourism can elucidate the key factors that affect tourists’ perception, give birth to tourism demand, stimulate tourism motivation and influence tourism decision-making; the destination of homestay tourism can create a good atmosphere of on-site experience for tourists, promote the level of interactive experience of tourists in homestay tourism destination, change their attitude and behavior in the destination, and support the development of homestay tourism.
In the process of developing the homestay tourism agglomeration area in the Yangtze River Delta, we must choose the suitable development mode for the homestay tourism agglomeration area according to local conditions. In view of the location conditions, market conditions and tourism development of different regions, after accurately positioning homestay tourists, then the focus can shift to support, and constantly cultivating their own characteristics, to form regional advantages. The government must put forward clear development goals and precise policies and regulations for the development of homestay tourism, which will promote the development of the homestay tourism agglomeration area. In the process of developing homestay tourism, we should not only have the policy guidance of government departments and reasonable planning, but should also give full play to the role of the main body of the market and consider the demands of tourists, while not being either too eager to achieve immediate benefits or too self-contained, so that the role of the policy can be played to the best effect.
 BaiK, Ma YF, RenaultN et al. An association study on tourist’ cognition, perceived value and behavior intention based on Structural Equation Model (SEM): A case study of inbound tourists in Xi’an City. Acta Geographica Sinica, 65, 244-255(2010).
 BuyekeO, Geoffrey KR, Frimar KK et al. The influence of homestay facilities on tourist satisfaction in the Lake Victoria Kenya Tourism Circuit. Journal of Ecotourism, 14, 278-287(2015).
 Detmar WS. Validating instruments in MIS research. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 13, 147-169(1989).
 FangB. A study on the relationship between homestay service scene, place attachment and customer’s willingness to consume again. MA thesis, Zhejiang Gongshang University(2018).
 Groth JC. Exclusive value and the pricing of services. Management Decision, 33, 22-29(1995).
 Guo SL. Study on the development of tourism residence in Henan Province based on the view of tourist perception. MA thesis. Henan University of Economics and Law(2017).
 Hou SY, MaQ. Study on the perception experience and tourist motivation of traditional village guesthouse. Housing Industry, 58-64(2017).
 JiaoY, XuH, XuM. Experience of tourist market in the commercial home enterprises: From constructive authenticity to existential autherticity. Human Geography, 32, 129-136(2017).
 MatzlerK, BallomF, Hinterhuber HH et al. The asymmetric relationship between attribute-level performance and overall customer satisfaction: A reconsideration of the importance-performance analysis. Industrial Marketing Management, 33, 271-277(2004).
 QiuF, Gan QY, Zhang WW. Study on the B&B image of Siming Mountain based on visitor’s perception. Journal of Central China Normal University (Natural Sciences), 51, 561-568(2017).
 ScarinciJ, RichinsH. Specialist lodging in the USA: Motivations of bed and breakfast accommodation guests. Tourism Interdisciplinary Journal, 56, 271-282(2008).
 WangL, Guang SJ, Wu XJ. Study on tourists’ perception to B&B experience based on network text data from Airbnb. Journal of Chang’an University (Social Science Edition), 19, 49-56(2017).
 Wu XG, Du YY. Empirical study on perceptive image formation of tourists on tourism destination: A case study of Nantong, Jiangsu Province. Geographical Research, 30, 1554-1565(2011).
 Xie NG. Discussion on the brand experience of rural residential houses in Zhejiang Province based on IPA analysis. Journal of Anyang Normal University, 103-106(2018).
 XuH, Liu YQ, LiangJ. Research on the dimension and influence of consumer perception of hotel service innovativeness: Based on the data from budget hotels. Tourism Tribune, 32, 61-73(2017).
 ZhaoL, Wu WZ, LiJ et al. The formation mechanism of tourist loyalty in ecotourism scenic spots from the perspective of tourist perceived value: Evidence from Xixi National Wetland Park. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 38, 7135-7147(2018).
 ZhouW, Huang ZF, Cao FD et al. The drive effect of thematic cultural tourist destination attribute on tourists’ place attachment: A case study of Mystical Yancheng Chun-Qiu Dream in Changzhou. Geographical Research, 32, 1528-1540(2013).
 ZhaoY, LiX. Study on operators’ perception of business risk of rural lodging—A case study of the main rural tourism spots in Chongqing. West Forum, 20, 79-86(2010).
Set citation alerts for the article
Please enter your email address