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• Chinese Optics Letters
• Vol. 20, Issue 5, 053601 (2022)
Shunshuo Cai1, Wanhan Hu1, Yiman Liu1, Juan Ning2, Sixuan Feng2, Chao Jin2, Lingling Huang1, and Xin Li1、*
Author Affiliations
• 1Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, School of Optics and Photonics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
• 2School of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
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Shunshuo Cai, Wanhan Hu, Yiman Liu, Juan Ning, Sixuan Feng, Chao Jin, Lingling Huang, Xin Li. Optical fiber hydrogen sensor using metasurfaces composed of palladium[J]. Chinese Optics Letters, 2022, 20(5): 053601 Copy Citation Text show less

Abstract

Palladium-based hydrogen sensors have been typically studied due to the dielectric function that changes with the hydrogen concentration. However, the development of a reliable, integral, and widely applicable hydrogen sensor requires a simple readout mechanism and an optimization of the fast detection of hydrogen. In this work, optical fiber hydrogen sensing platforms are developed using an optimized metasurface, which consists of a layer of palladium nanoantennas array suspended above a gold mirror layer. Since the optical properties of these palladium nanoantennas differ from the traditional palladium films, a high reflectance difference can be achieved when the sensor based on the metasurface is exposed to the hydrogen atmosphere. Finally, the optimized reflectance difference $Δ$R of $∼0.28$ can be obtained when the sensor is exposed in the presence of hydrogen. It is demonstrated that this integrated system architecture with an optimized palladium-based metasurface and a simple optical fiber readout system provides a compact and light platform for hydrogen detection in various working environments.

1. Introduction

Hydrogen (H2) has attracted lots of attention as a future energy source, especially due to its high energy-density, carbon-free, and pollution-free characteristics[1,2]. However, H2 is flammable and has low ignition energy. At room temperature and pressure, H2 exhibits a wide explosion range for concentrations (4%–75% by volume) coupled with a large flame propagation speed. Furthermore, as a colorless, odorless, extremely volatile gas, it diffuses very fast and easily, so it may eventually leak out of its container due to its small molecular size[3]. Thus, fast leaks detection equipment for all H2-related systems is required because of such safety reasons.

Shunshuo Cai, Wanhan Hu, Yiman Liu, Juan Ning, Sixuan Feng, Chao Jin, Lingling Huang, Xin Li. Optical fiber hydrogen sensor using metasurfaces composed of palladium[J]. Chinese Optics Letters, 2022, 20(5): 053601