Polarization is an important variable of electromagnetic waves, typical types of which include linear, circular, and elliptical ones. From the perspective of electromagnetic field, it refers to the trajectory of the electric field vibration, and from the perspective of the photons, it (circular polarization) can also be related to the spin angular momentum [1,2]. Therefore, polarization of light has been widely studied and applied in imaging, quantum optics, and other fields, and polarization manipulation has become an important research content of modern optics and photonics [3–5]. Traditional optical devices based on bulk crystals are used for polarization generation or conversion, such as polarizers and wave plates. The wave plate is based on the linear birefringence effect of the optical crystal, which produces a phase shift between the ordinary and the extraordinary components with an appropriate thickness, and then superimposes them into a new polarization. Such devices are large in size and require high processing accuracy, while only specific materials can be used in each electromagnetic band . More importantly, these devices can hardly realize the simultaneous control of other optical parameters while performing polarization conversion, such as amplitude and phase. This is not conducive to the multi-functional and integrated development of modern optical devices.
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