Recently, photonic topological insulators have been cutting-edge research topics in condensed matter physics because of the emergence of topologically protected states located at interfaces[1,2]. Interface states in static topological systems are characterized by their immunity to perturbations, which have given rise to many interesting phenomena and potential applications[1–6]. The topological characteristics in the dynamics of driven quantum systems provide newly engineered, topologically nontrivial phases that are not accessible in static systems. Therefore, a series of early works developed the notion of a “Floquet topological insulator” (FTI), which can appropriately modulate the drive frequency, amplitude, and symmetry to engineer the topological features of a band structure[9,10]. Over the past decade, FTI has been explored in many systems, such as cold atoms[11,12], photonics[13,14], and solid-state systems[15–17]. However, directly observing these effects in the above systems is difficult. Consequently, the lack of equivalent visualized systems has greatly hindered further developments of Floquet band engineering.