Relationship of landscape pattern and non-point source pollution in mountainous area of Eastern Shandong province
WANG Meng-wen, QI Wei, WANG Peng-tao, and WANG Zhuo-ran
Based on field monitoring and 3S technology, Qixia city in the low hilly area of Eastern Shandong province was taken as the research area. Pearson correlation, unconstrained PCA and corresponding canonical analysis (CCA) were used to study the coupling between landscape pattern and non-point source pollution at different watershed scales. The results show that: (1) The spatial variation of landscape pattern is obvious; the patches of agricultural land and construction land are relatively fragmented at the characteristic scale; and the patches of other types of land are highly aggregated. (2) The river surface source pollutants in the study area are mainly TN-based, and the main river outlet is the more polluted area. (3) The influence of landscape pattern on water quality during the wet period is greater than that of the normal water period, and TN and EC are most sensitive to the change of land use type area ratio and landscape pattern index. At different scales, water quality affected by landscape pattern and land use type is different. (4) In normal period at riverside scale, landscape that has the greatest impact on TN is the patch density, and EC is most affected by landscape edge density. At small basin scale TN is greatly affected by landscape spread, and COD is closely related to landscape diversity. The diversity of landscape on the scale of the riverbank during the wet period has the greatest influence on TN, the EC is greatly affected by the polymerization of the plaques, and the biggest factors affecting TN on the small basin scale are consistent with the flat water period, and EC is closely related to landscape spread. (5) At small basin landscape, TN is mainly affected by the density of forest land patch, TP and cultivated land dispersion are closely related to the parallel index, the abundance of water TN is significantly influenced by the forest land dispersion and juxtaposition index, TP is sensitive to the change of the average dimensionality of forest land, and EC is most influenced by grassland aggregation. Basically, the study clarified the spatial distribution characteristics of landscape pattern and non-point source pollution in the study area, and discussed the correlation between them at different scales, which provided a scientific basis for sustainable utilization of water and land resources in Qixia city.
  • May. 08, 2021
  • Journal of Natural Resources
  • Vol.35 Issue, 12 3007 (2020)
  • DOI:10.31497/zrzyxb.20201215
The response of stalagmite gray-level and isotopes to the climatic events during the last glacial period
WANG Meng, CHEN Shi-tao, HUANG Wan-chun, CAI Wen-qin, GONG Qing-lin, LIANG Yi-jia, WANG Xian-feng, and WANG Yong-jin
The study of various proxies of stalagmites is conducive to understand the characteristics and mechanisms of monsoon climate events comprehensively. Here, we present a high-resolution and multi-proxy stalagmite record from Yongxing Cave, Central China, spanning the interval between 65 and 35 ka B.P. based on high precision U/Th dating method and multi-proxy analyses. A total of 371 subsamples were drilled for oxygen and carbon isotopic measurements along the growth axis at a spacing of 0.5-mm-diameter carbide dental burrs. The analyses were conducted using a Finnigan MAT 253 mass spectrometer linked to a Kiel Carbonate Device at the School of Geography, Nanjing Normal University. The precision is 0.06‰ for δ18O and 0.05‰ for δ13C at the 1σ level. For the gray-level measurements, the polished surface of the studied section was scanned at a resolution of 1200 dpi using an EPSON Perfection 4990 Photo Scanner. The gray level was then obtained from the image using the Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI 4.8) software while traversing down the growth axis. The values range between 0 and 442, with a spatial resolution of 20 μm. The experimental results show that during the period of 65-40 ka B.P., the stalagmite records of gray-level, δ13C and δ18O all presented millennial to sub-millennial changes, but the amplitude of δ13C is much smaller than that of δ18O. This indicates that the local climate indicators of δ13C, gray-level and lithology also respond to the Heinrich (H) events and Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, but their sensitivities to events are different. During the H4 episode (about 40-38 ka B.P.), δ13C and the gray-level of the stalagmite showed anomalous changes. The significantly positive shift of δ13C reached an amplitude of 4.5‰ during H4, which was 2-3 times than other H events, while the gray-level presented the same characteristics to that of the DO cycles. We imply that the state of soil erosion may play an important role in such correspondence during H4. When the monsoon weakened to a certain threshold, the soil cover above the permeable cave was greatly deteriorated, thus weakening and/or preventing the infiltration ability of the soil-karst system and increasing the impurity contents in the stalagmite.
  • May. 08, 2021
  • Journal of Natural Resources
  • Vol.35 Issue, 12 3064 (2020)
  • DOI:10.31497/zrzyxb.20201220
Discussion on mixed use of rural residential land research framework
ZHANG Bai-lin, QIAN Jia-cheng, and CAI Wei-min
Mixed land use advocates that the land has multiple uses and functions, which is an important way to improve the vitality of economic development and the intensive use of land. At present, mixed land use is mainly applied in urban land use evolution and planning practice. With the intensification of urban-rural interaction, the urban-rural boundary tends to be blurred, and the internal structure and function of rural residential land in urban suburbs are gradually diversified, showing significant mixed utilization characteristics. Based on this, this paper attempts to apply mixed land use to the evolution and planning of rural residential land use. On the basis of reviewing the theory of mixed land use and its application, according to the logic of "connotation characteristics-quantitative evaluation-driving mechanism-practice approach", the systematic analysis of the mixed use of rural residential land in urban suburbs was carried out, and the optimization of rural residential areas was proposed. Finally, we take Yaocun village, which is located in the suburbs of Tianjin, as an example to demonstrate the research framework proposed in this paper. The ideas and plans for the mixed land use theoretically enrich the methods and framework for the transformation of rural residential land use, and provide scientific support for the preparation of village planning and the implementation of the strategy for rural revitalization in practice.
  • May. 08, 2021
  • Journal of Natural Resources
  • Vol.35 Issue, 12 2929 (2020)
  • DOI:10.31497/zrzyxb.20201209
Research on the land-use efficiency and driving factors of urban construction in Fujian province under environmental constraints
LIANG Jian-fei, and CHEN Song-lin
It is of great practical significance to explore the regional difference characteristics and driving mechanism of the utilization efficiency of construction land under environmental constraints. The purpose is to guide the efficient utilization of urban construction land, alleviate the contradiction between social and economic development and ecological environment in the process of rapid urbanization, as well as achieve regional coordinated development. Taking environmental pollution as an unexpected output into the evaluation system, we systematically studied the spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics, dynamic trend evolution and driving factors of urban construction land use efficiency in Fujian province from 2006 to 2016. Models adopted in this analysis include the non-expected output SE-SBM model, coefficient of variation, and GML index and gray relational model. The results showed that: (1) During 2006-2016, the utilization efficiency of urban construction land in Fujian fluctuated in a sinusoidal pattern. The input-output efficiency had always been put at the effective frontier from 2012 to 2016. It is easy to find the differences of efficiency values between regions. It can also be found that there exists a non-positive correlation between efficiency and economic development level. (2) The spatial pattern suggests that the efficiency of the eastern coastal region is higher than that of the western inland areas, which forms an obvious cluster effect. Although Zhangzhou city is located in the southeastern coastal area, its efficiency value in 2016 was still in an invalid state without a fundamental change, which further illustrates that the radiation driving role of high-efficiency cities is weak. (3) The TFP of Fujian shows a sinusoidal growth trend, and the overall development trend is good. The agglomeration scale effect caused by technological progress is the main reason for the variance in the growth rate of regional TFP. Technological factor is the key to narrow the gap in the growth rate of regional TFP. (4) Urbanization level, ecological input, government regulation, cultivated land resource endowment, R&D investment in science and technology, as well as the advanced industrial structure are the main driving factors affecting the spatiotemporal differentiation and evolution of urban construction land-use efficiency in Fujian province.
  • May. 08, 2021
  • Journal of Natural Resources
  • Vol.35 Issue, 12 2862 (2020)
  • DOI:10.31497/zrzyxb.20201204
Modeling the long-term impacts of harvest and artificial regeneration on forest area and aboveground biomass in Red Soil Hilly Region: A case study in Moshao forest farm of Huitong county
DAI Er-fu, WANG Xiao-fan, ZHU Jian-jia, and WANG Xiao-li
Plantations in China are facing a series of issues, such as structure degradation and function reduction. Thus, it is urgently requested to implement effective measures on plantations through reasonable forest management strategies. The Moshao forest farm of Huitong ecological station, which is a typical forest ecosystem in Red Soil Hilly Region of South China, is the study area to examine the dynamics of forest area and aboveground biomass (AGB) in the next century. The landscape disturbance model named LANDIS-II was employed in this study to simulate the effects of harvesting intensities and artificial regeneration on artificial coniferous forest, artificial broad-leaved forest, and natural broad-leaved forest by six scenarios. The scenarios included low, middle, high harvest intensity and each scenario had an artificial regeneration option after harvesting. The results showed that as the harvesting intensity went heavier, the area of artificial coniferous forest decreased. Conversely, natural forest area increased. And the forest AGB decreased sharply when the harvesting intensity was high. Plantations could take advantages of artificial regeneration to remain the area and facilitate the AGB accumulation. The scheme of harvesting with 20% of plantations every 10 years and followed by artificial regeneration would basically retained the area and AGB at the initial level in the next century. Therefore, this scheme was more applicable to the long term development of the forest in the study area and helpful to achieve the forest sustainable management of Chinese fir and masson pine plantations.
  • May. 08, 2021
  • Journal of Natural Resources
  • Vol.35 Issue, 12 2995 (2020)
  • DOI:10.31497/zrzyxb.20201214
Research on driving mechanism of ecological land loss based on Bayesian network
ZHENG Tao, CHEN Shuang, ZHANG Tong, XU Li-ting, and MA Li-ya
From the micro perspective, the driving factors of ecological land loss in urban riverside area are analyzed, especially based on the quantitative analysis of the factors with crucial influences such as policy and planning, which has important reference significance for the formulation of ecological land protection policies. In this paper, the Bayesian network model is used to integrate the neighborhood factors, natural factors, policy and planning factors that lead to ecological land loss. And the relationship between ecological land change and its driving factors is clearly illustrated by a good graphical description method. The research results show that from 2005 to 2018, about 11.0% of the ecological land in Nanjing riverside area is lost, and the stable proportion of ecological land is 89.0%. The sensitivity of ecological land protection intensity to ecological land loss is as high as 9.37%, the sensitivity of construction potential factor is 2.53%, and the sensitivity of development difficulty is only 0.21%. The effect of shoreline planning is better than that of land use planning, which indicates that the protection policy based on the function goal of ecological land should be made to ensure the long-term existence of ecological space.
  • May. 08, 2021
  • Journal of Natural Resources
  • Vol.35 Issue, 12 2980 (2020)
  • DOI:10.31497/zrzyxb.20201213
The effects of ecological forest compensation on farmers' income from the perspective of incentive compatibility theory: An empirical study in Sanming, Fujian
LI Jun-long, DENG Xiang-zheng, ZHANG Fan, and CAI Chuang-neng
Based on the survey data of 499 farmers in Sanming, Fujian, the method of propensity score matching was used to measure the income effects of cash compensation and post compensation for farmers. The results show that both cash compensation and post compensation have positive effects on farmers' income. The effect of cash compensation on farmers' income is insignificant, while post compensation has 55.4% and 57% net effect on farmers' total income and per capita income, respectively. Further research found that the two compensation methods had different income effects for poor and non-poor farmers. Cash compensation is not conducive to poor farmers' income, while post compensation has significant positive effects across farmers with different income. In addition, considering the basic mission of ecological forest, it is found that the net effects of cash compensation and post compensation on ecological protection are different. Therefore, scientific planning on compensation methods and compensation standards is a fundamental way to achieve the double effects of ecological protection and farmers' income increase.
  • May. 08, 2021
  • Journal of Natural Resources
  • Vol.35 Issue, 12 2942 (2020)
  • DOI:10.31497/zrzyxb.20201210
Spatiotemporal evolution and its influencing factors of semi-consumptive wildlife tourist attractions in China
CONG Li, YU Jia-ping, and WANG Ling-en
The interaction between human beings and wild animals has a profound and complex history. Wildlife tourism has gradually been seen as a compatible medium for people to interact with nature and wild animals. Along with the increasing demand in China, the supply of wildlife-themed tourist attractions, to some extent, has disordered competition, resulting in a waste of resources. Therefore, it is necessary to sort and analyze the resource base of semi-consumptive wildlife tourist attractions in China. Selecting 574 semi-consumptive wildlife tourism attractions in China from 1906 to 2019 as objects of study, this paper analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution, evolution characteristics as well as the related influencing factors of semi-consumptive wildlife tourist attractions in China, using models such as inter-annual variability index, nearest neighbor index, geographic concentration index, the Gini coefficient and the nuclear density analysis. The results show that: (1) In terms of time, the opening time of semi-consumptive wildlife tourist attractions in China is scattered, and can be roughly divided into four stages, namely the exploration stage (1906-1948), rapid development stage (1949-1959), slow development stage (1960-1992) and high-speed development stage (1993-2019). (2) In terms of space, the attractions present a cohesive distribution, and are geographically concentrated. The development between regions is highly unbalanced. Three high-density areas have formed with Beijing, Jiangsu-Zhejiang-Shanghai and Guangzhou as cores. Overall, there are more attractions in the eastern and southern coastal areas and less in the western part of China, with a transition in central China. Over time, the cohesion form continues and geographic concentration index gradually decreases approaching the assumed average level. However, the growth between regions is increasingly unbalanced. (3) The distribution of wildlife tourist attractions is influenced by development of history and national policies concerning the protection of wildlife animals, and has a certain positive correlation with the local factors such as population, the degree of economic development and the scale of tourism development. The attractions tend to be located in areas with great regional advantages, high population density, developed economy and leading tourism development. The research conclusion provides an overall cognition of spatial and temporal distribution of semi-consumptive wildlife attractions in China and will be the scientific basis and reference for investors and relevant managers to promote the further development and planning of wildlife tourism in the future.
  • May. 08, 2021
  • Journal of Natural Resources
  • Vol.35 Issue, 12 2831 (2020)
  • DOI:10.31497/zrzyxb.20201202
The influence mechanism of poverty spatial differentiation in Western Anhui province
ZHAO Chun-yu, WEN Rui-xia, and YANG Na
Regional poverty has become the core problem of urban-rural development and income distribution imbalance in China. Taking the Western Anhui area of Dabie Mountains as a case study, based on the spatial heterogeneity pattern and dependence pattern of poverty on the township scale, selecting 20 factors from three dimensions of geographical environment, economic environment and social environment, this paper explores the influence of various factors on poverty spatial differentiation through analysis of correlation, multivariate linear regression, spatial regression and geographical weighted regression. The results show that: First, the basic pattern of spatial differentiation of poverty in Western Anhui shows that the poverty rate in the southwest and south parts of the study area is high, while that in the central and northeast regions is relatively low. The spatial dependence of poverty in Western Anhui is strong. Secondly, the results of Pearson correlation analysis show that the geographical environment, economic environment and social environment are the important factors that affect the spatial differentiation of poverty. Spatial regression and GWR regression analyses show that the average slope, the gross national product per capita of above-scale industries, the proportion of income derived from the secondary and tertiary industries to the net income, the number of beds in medical and health institutions are the core factors leading to the spatial differentiation of poverty, and their influence has strong spatial heterogeneity. Finally, geographical mechanism, economic mechanism and social mechanism are the three mechanisms of poverty spatial differentiation. The geographical environment plays a fundamental role in the formation of spatial differentiation of poverty, whose impact is profound and extensive. The economic environment and social environment, controlled by the geographical environment, affect each other. These two factors are not only an important manifestation of poverty, but also related with poverty. The results of this study can be used for reference to the geographical aim of poverty intervention.
  • May. 08, 2021
  • Journal of Natural Resources
  • Vol.35 Issue, 12 2916 (2020)
  • DOI:10.31497/zrzyxb.20201208
Hotspot identification and cause analysis of rural tourism based on website data:Take Jiangsu province as an example
RONG Hui-fang, and TAO Zhuo-min
Rural tourism has important practical significance for optimizing the rural industrial structure, and recovering the rural economy, especially for the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy. Thus, rural tourism is not only the focus of local government and tourism enterprises, but also a hot topic in domestic and international tourism research. At the same time, with the development and popularization of the Internet, travel websites, social software and other online platforms have become important tools to obtain travel information, make travel decisions, and share travel experiences. Tourism big data provides data sources and methodological support for rural tourism research. Based on data of tourism network, this paper puts forward a method for identifying rural tourism hotspots. Taking Jiangsu province as an example, this paper uses the methods of trend surface, nuclear density estimation and hot spot analysis to explore the cold and hot patterns of rural tourism, and reveals the influencing factors of the evolution with the help of geographic detectors. The results show that: (1) The annual and seasonal changes of rural tourism heat are obvious. The annual change presents s an "S" shaped evolution track, seasonal variation is characterized by "three peaks and four valleys", but the degree of seasonal influence on different types of rural tourist attractions is slightly different. (2) The spatial structure of rural tourism in Jiangsu province experienced the evolution of "mononuclear-dual-nuclear-trinuclear" in 2009-2017, but its heterogeneity is still significant, basically maintaining the overall characteristics of "high in the south and east regions, while low in the north and west regions". The hot spots are concentrated in southern Jiangsu and gradually evolve into cold spots in the north. The evolution of spatial structure shows a trend of "expanding from the west to the north". (3) There are obvious strength differences and time variations among the influencing factors. Transportation convenience and reception capacity have always been the main influencing factors. The economic development has a significant positive impact on the early development of rural tourism, and the influence of tourism resource tends to decline. The positive influence of ecological environment and government orientation on rural tourism is increasing. Hotspot identification based on network data provides a new perspective for quantitative research of rural tourism. In terms of practicability, it is helpful to clarify the evolution characteristics of the cold and hot patterns of rural tourism so as to provide important guiding significance for rural tourism resource development and regional cooperation.
  • May. 08, 2021
  • Journal of Natural Resources
  • Vol.35 Issue, 12 2848 (2020)
  • DOI:10.31497/zrzyxb.20201203