Optoelectronics|86 Article(s)
Effect of packing density and packing geometry on light extraction of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays
Peifen Zhu, and Nelson Tansu
The finite-difference time-domain method was employed to calculate light extraction efficiency of thin-film flip-chip InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with TiO2 microsphere arrays. The extraction efficiency for LEDs with microsphere arrays was investigated by focusing on the effect of the packing density, packing configuration, and diameter-to-period ratio. The comparison studies revealed the importance of having a hexagonal and close-packed monolayer microsphere array configuration for achieving optimum extraction efficiency, which translated into a 3.6-fold enhancement in light extraction compared to that for a planar LED. This improvement is attributed to the reduced Fresnel reflection and enlarged light escape cone. The engineering of the far-field radiation patterns was also demonstrated by tuning the packing density and packing configuration of the microsphere arrays.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Jul. 22, 2015
  • Vol. 3, Issue 4, 04000184 (2015)
Antenna-assisted subwavelength metal–InGaAs–metal structure for sensitive and direct photodetection of millimeter and terahertz waves
Jinchao Tong, Yue Qu, Fei Suo, Wei Zhou, Zhiming Huang, and Dao Hua Zhang
Millimeter and terahertz wave photodetectors have a wide range of applications. However, the state-of-the-art techniques lag far behind the urgent demand due to the structure and performance limitations. Here, we report sensitive and direct millimeter and terahertz wave photodetection in compact InGaAs-based subwavelength ohmic metal–semiconductor–metal structures. The photoresponse originates from unidirectional transportation of nonequilibrium electrons induced by surface plasmon polaritons under irradiation. The detected quantum energies of electromagnetic waves are far below the bandgap of InGaAs, offering, to the best of our knowledge, a novel direct photoelectric conversion pathway for InGaAs beyond its bandgap limit. The achieved room temperature rise time and noise equivalent power of the detector are 45 μs and 20 pW·Hz 1/2, respectively, at the 0.0375 THz (8 mm) wave. The detected wavelength is tunable by mounting different coupling antennas. Room temperature terahertz imaging of macroscopic samples at around 0.166 THz is also demonstrated. This work opens an avenue for sensitive and large-area uncooled millimeter and terahertz focal planar arrays.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Jan. 01, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 1, 01000089 (2019)
Ultrafast and low-power optoelectronic infrared-to-visible upconversion devices
Zhao Shi, He Ding, Hao Hong, Dali Cheng, Kamran Rajabi, Jian Yang, Yongtian Wang, Lai Wang, Yi Luo, Kaihui Liu, and Xing Sheng
Photon upconversion with transformation of low-energy photons to high-energy photons has been widely studied and especially applied in biomedicine for sensing, stimulation, and imaging. Conventional upconversion materials rely on nonlinear luminescence processes, suffering from long decay lifetime or high excitation power. Here, we present a microscale, optoelectronic infrared-to-visible upconversion device design that can be excited at low power (1–100 mW/cm2). By manipulating device geometry, illumination position, and temperature, the device luminescence decay lifetime can be tuned from tens to hundreds of nanoseconds. Based on carrier transportation and circuit dynamics, theoretical models are established to understand the transient behaviors. Compared with other mechanisms, the optoelectronic upconversion approach demonstrates the shortest luminescence lifetime with the lowest required excitation power, owing to its unique photon–electron conversion process. These features are expected to empower the device with essential capabilities for versatile applications as high-performance light emitters.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Oct. 01, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 10, 10001161 (2019)
Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for data communication and sensing
Anjin Liu, Philip Wolf, James A. Lott, and Dieter Bimberg
Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are the ideal optical sources for data communication and sensing. In data communication, large data rates combined with excellent energy efficiency and temperature stability have been achieved based on advanced device design and modulation formats. VCSELs are also promising sources for photonic integrated circuits due to their small footprint and low power consumption. Also, VCSELs are commonly used for a wide variety of applications in the consumer electronics market. These applications range from laser mice to three-dimensional (3D) sensing and imaging, including various 3D movement detections, such as gesture recognition or face recognition. Novel VCSEL types will include metastructures, exhibiting additional unique properties, of largest importance for next-generation data communication, sensing, and photonic integrated circuits.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Jan. 09, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 2, 02000121 (2019)
Full-color monolithic hybrid quantum dot nanoring micro light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency using atomic layer deposition and nonradiative resonant energy transfer|On the Cover
Sung-Wen Huang Chen, Chih-Chiang Shen, Tingzhu Wu, Zhen-You Liao, Lee-Feng Chen, Jia-Rou Zhou, Chun-Fu Lee, Chih-Hao Lin, Chien-Chung Lin, Chin-Wei Sher, Po-Tsung Lee, An-Jye Tzou, Zhong Chen, and Hao-Chung Kuo
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Apr. 11, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 4, 04000416 (2019)
Continuous wave operation of GaAsBi microdisk lasers at room temperature with large wavelengths ranging from 1.27 to 1.41  μm
Xiu Liu, Lijuan Wang, Xuan Fang, Taojie Zhou, Guohong Xiang, Boyuan Xiang, Xueqing Chen, Suikong Hark, Hao Liang, Shumin Wang, and Zhaoyu Zhang
Submicron-meter size GaAsBi disk resonators were fabricated with the GaAsBi/GaAs single-quantum-well (QW)-structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The GaAsBi/GaAs QW revealed very broad photoluminescence signals in the wavelength range of 1100–1400 nm at 300 K. The 750 nm diameter and 220 nm thick disk resonators were optically pumped and exhibited lasing characteristics with continuous wave operation at room temperature. To our knowledge, it is the first demonstration of a lasing wavelength longer than 1.3 μm with a maximum value of 1.4 μm in a GaAsBi/GaAs material system. The lasing wavelength spans about 130 nm by adjusting the disk diameter, covering almost the entire O band. The ultrasmall GaAsBi disk lasers may have great potential for highly dense on-chip integration with large tunability in the O band.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Apr. 12, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 5, 05000508 (2019)
Review of gallium-oxide-based solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors
Xuanhu Chen, Fangfang Ren, Shulin Gu, and Jiandong Ye
Solar-blind photodetectors are of great interest to a wide range of industrial, civil, environmental, and biological applications. As one of the emerging ultrawide-bandgap semiconductors, gallium oxide (Ga2O3) exhibits unique advantages over other wide-bandgap semiconductors, especially in developing high-performance solar-blind photodetectors. This paper comprehensively reviews the latest progresses of solar-blind photodetectors based on Ga2O3 materials in various forms of bulk single crystal, epitaxial films, nanostructures, and their ternary alloys. The basic working principles of photodetectors and the fundamental properties and synthesis of Ga2O3, as well as device processing developments, have been briefly summarized. A special focus is to address the physical mechanism for commonly observed huge photoconductive gains. Benefitting from the rapid development in material epitaxy and device processes, Ga2O3-based solar-blind detectors represent to date one of the most prospective solutions for UV detection technology towards versatile applications.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Apr. 11, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 4, 04000381 (2019)
Wide tunable laser based on electrically regulated bandwidth broadening in polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal
Hongbo Lu, Cheng Wei, Qiang Zhang, Miao Xu, Yunsheng Ding, Guobing Zhang, Jun Zhu, Kang Xie, Xiaojuan Zhang, Zhijia Hu, and Longzhen Qiu
Electrically responsive photonic crystals represent one of the most promising intelligent material candidates for technological applications in optoelectronics. In this research, dye-doped polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals (PSCLCs) with negative dielectric anisotropy were fabricated, and mirrorless lasing with an electrically tunable wavelength was successfully achieved. Unlike conventional liquid-crystal lasers, the proposed laser aided in tuning the emission wavelength through controlling the reflection bandwidth based on gradient pitch distribution. The principal advantage of the electrically controlled dye-doped PSCLC laser is that the electric field is applied parallel to the helical axis, which changes the pitch gradient instead of rotating the helix axis, thus keeping the heliconical structure intact during lasing. The broad tuning range (~110 nm) of PSCLC lasers, coupled with their stable emission performance, continuous tunability, and easy fabrication, leads to its numerous potential applications in intelligent optoelectronic devices, such as sensing, medicine, and display.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Jan. 10, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 2, 02000137 (2019)
Efficient InGaN-based yellow-light-emitting diodes
Fengyi Jiang, Jianli Zhang, Longquan Xu, Jie Ding, Guangxu Wang, Xiaoming Wu, Xiaolan Wang, Chunlan Mo, Zhijue Quan, Xing Guo, Changda Zheng, Shuan Pan, and Junlin Liu
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Jan. 14, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 2, 02000144 (2019)
High-performance fiber-integrated multifunctional graphene-optoelectronic device with photoelectric detection and optic-phase modulation
Linqing Zhuo, Pengpeng Fan, Shuang Zhang, Yuansong Zhan, Yanmei Lin, Yu Zhang, Dongquan Li, Zhen Che, Wenguo Zhu, Huadan Zheng, Jieyuan Tang, Jun Zhang, Yongchun Zhong, Wenxiao Fang, Guoguang Lu, Jianhui Yu, and Zhe Chen
In graphene-based optoelectronic devices, the ultraweak interaction between a light and monolayer graphene leads to low optical absorption and low responsivity for the photodetectors and relative high half-wave voltage for the phase modulator. Here, an integration of the monolayer graphene onto the side-polished optical fiber is demonstrated, which is capable of providing a cost-effective strategy to enhance the light–graphene interaction, allowing us to obtain a highly efficient optical absorption in graphene and achieve multifunctions: photodetection and optical phase modulation. As a photodetector, the device has ultrahigh responsivity (1.5×107 A/W) and high external quantum efficiency (>1.2×109%). Additionally, the polybutadiene/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) film on the graphene can render the device an optical phase modulator through the large thermo-optic effect of the PMMA. As a phase modulator, the device has a relatively low half-wave voltage of 3 V with a 16 dB extinction ratio in Mach–Zehnder interferometer configuration.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Nov. 30, 2020
  • Vol. 8, Issue 12, 12001949 (2020)