Optical and Photonic Materials|101 Article(s)
Direction controllable inverse transition radiation from the spatial dispersion in a graphene-dielectric stack
Sen Gong, Min Hu, Zhenhua Wu, Hang Pan, Haotian Wang, Kaichun Zhang, Renbin Zhong, Jun Zhou, Tao Zhao, Diwei Liu, Wei Wang, Chao Zhang, and Shenggang Liu
Transition radiation (TR) induced by electron–matter interaction usually demands vast accelerating voltages, and the radiation angle cannot be controlled. Here we present a mechanism of direction controllable inverse transition radiation (DCITR) in a graphene-dielectric stack excited by low-velocity electrons. The revealed mechanism shows that the induced hyperbolic-like spatial dispersion and the superposition of the individual bulk graphene plasmons (GPs) modes make the fields, which are supposed to be confined on the surface, radiate in the stack along a special radiation angle normal to the Poynting vector. By adjusting the chemical potential of the graphene sheets, the radiation angle can be controlled. And owing to the excitation of bulk GPs, only hundreds of volts for the accelerating voltage are required and the field intensity is dramatically enhanced compared with that of the normal TR. Furthermore, the presented mechanism can also be applied to the hyperbolic stack based on semiconductors in the infrared region as well as noble metals in the visible and ultraviolet region. Accordingly, the presented mechanism of DCITR is of great significance in particle detection, radiation emission, and so on.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 18, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 10, 10001154 (2019)
Zeolite templated carbon nanodots for broadband ultrafast pulsed fiber laser generation
Xintong Xu, Jiaqi Chen, Wentao Shi, Dalin Sun, Shaowen Chu, Lang Sun, Wenfei Zhang, Yanping Chen, Jianpang Zhai, Shuangchen Ruan, and Zikang Tang
Carbon nanodots (C-dots) with a uniform size of about 2 nm are synthesized via in situ pyrolysis of n-propylamine that is confined in the nanochannels of zeolite Linde Type A (LTA). The as-synthesized C-dots@LTA composite shows nonlinear optical saturable absorption properties in a broad wavelength band and can be used as saturable absorber (SA) to generate ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers. By inserting a zeolite LTA single crystal hosting C-dots into the fiber laser cavity, mode-locked fiber lasers with long-term operation stability at 1.5 μm and 1 μm are achieved. These results show that the C-dots@LTA are a promising SA material for ultrafast pulsed fiber laser generation in a broad wavelength band. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a C-dots@LTA-based mode-locked fiber laser.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Oct. 01, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 10, 10001182 (2019)
Broadband mid-infrared second harmonic generation using epitaxial polydomain barium titanate thin films|Editors' Pick
Junchao Zhou, Wenrui Zhang, Mingzhao Liu, and Pao Tai Lin
The mid-infrared (mid-IR) second-order optical nonlinearity of the barium titanate (BTO) thin films was characterized by second harmonic generation (SHG). The epitaxial BTO thin films were grown on strontium titanate substrates by pulsed-laser deposition. From the azimuthal-dependent polarized SHG measurements, the tensorial optical nonlinear coefficients, dij, and ferroelectric domain fraction ratio, δAY/δAz, were resolved. Strong SHG signals were obtained at the pumping laser wavelength λ between 3.0 and 3.6 μm. The SHG intensity was linearly dependent upon the square of the pumping laser power. The broadband mid-IR optical nonlinearity enables BTO thin films for applications in chip-scale quantum optics and nonlinear integrated photonic circuits.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Oct. 01, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 10, 10001193 (2019)
Third-order nonlinear optical properties of WTe2 films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition
Mi He, Yequan Chen, Lipeng Zhu, Huan Wang, Xuefeng Wang, Xinlong Xu, and Zhanyu Ren
The prominent third-order nonlinear optical properties of WTe2 films are studied through the Z-scan technique using a femtosecond pulsed laser at 1030 nm. Open-aperture (OA) and closed-aperture (CA) Z-scan measurements are performed at different intensities to investigate the nonlinear absorption and refraction properties of WTe2 films. OA Z-scan results show that WTe2 films always hold a saturable absorption characteristic without transition to reverse saturable absorption. Further, a large nonlinear absorption coefficient β is determined to be 3.37×103 cm/GW by fitting the OA Z-scan curve at the peak intensity of 15.603 GW/cm2. In addition, through the slow saturation absorption model, the ground state absorption cross section, excited state absorption cross section, and absorber’s density were found to be 1.4938×10 16 cm2, 1.2536×10 16 cm2, and 6.2396×1020 cm 3, respectively. CA Z-scan results exhibit a classic peak–valley shape of the CA Z-scan signal, which reveals a self-defocusing optical effect of WTe2 films under the measured environment. Furthermore, a considerable nonlinear refractive index value n2 can be obtained at 1.629×10 2 cm2/GW. Ultimately, the values of the real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinear s
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Nov. 27, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 12, 12001493 (2019)
Direct observation of interlayer coherent acoustic phonon dynamics in bilayer and few-layer PtSe2
Xin Chen, Saifeng Zhang, Lei Wang, Yi-Fan Huang, Huiyan Liu, Jiawei Huang, Ningning Dong, Weimin Liu, Ivan M. Kislyakov, Jean Michel Nunzi, Long Zhang, and Jun Wang
This work reports the real-time observation of the interlayer lattice vibrations in bilayer and few-layer PtSe2 by means of the coherent phonon method. The layer-breathing mode and standing wave mode of the interlayer vibrations are found to coexist in such a kind of group-10 transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). The interlayer breathing force constant standing for perpendicular coupling (per effective atom) is derived as 7.5 N/m, 2.5 times larger than that of graphene. The interlayer shearing force constant is comparable to the interlayer breathing force constant, which indicates that PtSe2 has nearly isotropic interlayer coupling. The low-frequency Raman spectroscopy elucidates the polarization behavior of the layer-breathing mode that is assigned to have A1g symmetry. The standing wave mode shows redshift with the increasing number of layers, which successfully determines the out-of-plane sound velocity of PtSe2 experimentally. Our results manifest that the coherent phonon method is a good tool to uncover the interlayer lattice vibrations, beyond the conventional Raman spectroscopy limit. The strong interlayer interaction in group-10 TMDCs reveals their promising potential in high-frequency (~terahertz) micro-mechanical resonators.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Nov. 15, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 12, 12001416 (2019)
Absorption and emission modulation in a MoS2–GaN (0001) heterostructure by interface phonon–exciton coupling
Yuba Poudel, Jagoda Sławińska, Priya Gopal, Sairaman Seetharaman, Zachariah Hennighausen, Swastik Kar, Francis D’souza, Marco Buongiorno Nardelli, and Arup Neogi
Semiconductor heterostructures based on layered two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) interfaced to gallium nitride (GaN) are excellent material systems to realize broadband light absorbers and emitters due to their close proximity in the lattice constants. The surface properties of a polar semiconductor such as GaN are dominated by interface phonons, and thus the optical properties of the vertical heterostructure are influenced by the coupling of these carriers with phonons. The activation of different Raman modes in the heterostructure caused by the coupling between interfacial phonons and optically generated carriers in a monolayer MoS2–GaN (0001) heterostructure is observed. Different excitonic states in MoS2 are close to the interband energy state of intraband defect state of GaN. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to determine the band alignment of the interface and revealed a type-I heterostructure. The close proximity of the energy levels and the excitonic states in the semiconductors and the coupling of the electronic states with phonons result in the modification of carrier relaxation rates. Modulation of the excitonic absorption states in MoS2 is measured by transient optical pump-probe spectroscopy and the change in emission properties of both semiconductors is measured by steady-state photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. There is significant red-shift of the C excitonic band and faster dephasing of carriers in MoS2. However, optical excitation at energy higher than the bandgap of both semiconductors slows down the dephasing of carriers and energy exchange at the interface. Enhanced and blue-shifted PL emission is observed in MoS2. GaN band-edge emission is reduced in intensity at room temperature due to increased phonon-induced scattering of carriers in the GaN layer. Our results demonstrate the relevance of interface coupling between the semiconductors for the development of optical and electronic applications.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Dec. 01, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 12, 12001511 (2019)
Observation of optical refrigeration in a holmium-doped crystal
Saeid Rostami, Alexander R. Albrecht, Azzurra Volpi, and Mansoor Sheik-Bahae
We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of solid-state optical refrigeration of a Ho-doped material. A 1 mol% Ho-doped yttrium lithium fluoride (YLF) crystal is cooled by mid-IR laser radiation, and its external quantum efficiency and parasitic background absorption are evaluated. Using detailed temperature-dependent spectroscopic analysis, the minimum achievable temperature of a 1% Ho:YLF sample is estimated. Owing to its narrower ground- and excited-state manifolds, larger absorption cross section, and the coincidence of the optimum cooling wavelength of 2070 nm with commercially available high-power and highly efficient Tm-fiber lasers, Ho3+-doped crystals are superior to Tm3+-doped systems for mid-IR optical refrigeration. With further improvement in material purity and increased doping concentration, they offer great potential towards enhancing the cooling efficiency nearly two-fold over the best current Yb:YLF systems, achieving lower temperatures as well as for the realization of eye-safe mid-IR high-power radiation balanced lasers.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Apr. 11, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 4, 04000445 (2019)
In situ instant generation of an ultrabroadband near-infrared emission center in bismuth-doped borosilicate glasses via a femtosecond laser
Liping Wang, Jiangkun Cao, Yao Lu, Xiaoman Li, Shanhui Xu, Qinyuan Zhang, Zhongmin Yang, and Mingying Peng
Bismuth (Bi)-doped photonic materials, which exhibit broadband near-infrared (NIR) luminescence (1000–1600 nm), are evolving into interesting gain media. However, the traditional methods have shown their limitations in enhancing Bi NIR emission, especially in the microregion. Consequently, the typical NIR emission has seldom been achieved in Bi-doped waveguides, which highly restricts the application of Bi-activated materials. Here, superbroadband Bi NIR emission is induced in situ instantly in the grating region by a femtosecond (fs) laser inside borosilicate glasses. A series of structural and spectroscopic characterizations are summoned to probe the generation mechanism. And we show how this novel NIR emission in the grating region can be enhanced significantly and erased reversibly. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrate Bi-activated optical waveguides. These results present new insights into Bi-doped materials and push the development of broadband waveguide amplification.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Feb. 21, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 3, 03000300 (2019)
Bipolar phototransistor in a vertical Au/graphene/MoS2 van der Waals heterojunction with photocurrent enhancement
Jiaqi Li, Xurui Mao, Sheng Xie, Zhaoxin Geng, and Hongda Chen
Bipolar phototransistors have higher optical responsivity than photodiodes and play an important role in the field of photoelectric conversion. Two-dimensional materials offer a good optical responsivity and have the potential advantages of heterogeneous integration, but mass-production is difficult. In this study, a bipolar phototransistor is presented based on a vertical Au/graphene/MoS2 van der Waals heterojunction that can be mass-produced with a silicon semiconductor process using a simple photolithography process. Au is used as the emitter, which is a functional material used not just for the electrodes, MoS2 is used for the collector, and graphene in used for the base of the bipolar phototransistor. In the bipolar phototransistor, the electric field of the dipole formed by the Au and graphene contact is in the same direction as the external electric field and thus enhances the photocurrent, and a maximum photocurrent gain of 18 is demonstrated. A mechanism for enhancing the photocurrent of the graphene/MoS2 photodiode by contacting Au with graphene is also described. Additionally, the maximum responsivity is calculated to be 16,458 A/W, and the generation speed of the photocurrent is 1.48×10?4 A/s.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Jan. 01, 2020
  • Vol. 8, Issue 1, 01000039 (2020)
Microscopic pump-probe optical technique to characterize the defect of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides
Ying Yu, Xiankun Zhang, Zhangkai Zhou, Zheng Zhang, Yanjun Bao, Haofei Xu, Limin Lin, Yue Zhang, and Xuehua Wang
Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are ideal materials for atomically thin, flexible optoelectronic and catalytic devices. However, their optoelectrical performance such as quantum yield and carrier mobility often shows below theoretical expectations due to the existence of defects. For monolayer TMD-based devices, finding a low-cost, time-efficient, and nondestructive technique to visualize the change of defect distribution in the space domain and the defect-induced change of the carrier’s lifetime is vital for optimizing their optoelectronic properties. Here, we propose a microscopic pump-probe technique to map the defect distribution of monolayer TMDs. It is found that there is a linear relationship between transient differential reflection intensity and defect density, suggesting that this technique not only realizes the visualization of the defect distribution but also achieves the quantitative estimation of defect density. Moreover, the carrier lifetime at each point can also be obtained by the technique. The technique used here provides a new route to characterize the defect of monolayer TMDs on the micro-zone, which will hopefully guide the fabrication of high-quality two-dimensional (2D) materials and the promotion of optoelectrical performance.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Jun. 04, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 7, 07000711 (2019)