Instrumentation and Measurements|42 Article(s)
Photonics-based radar with balanced I/Q de-chirping for interference-suppressed high-resolution detection and imaging
Xingwei Ye, Fangzheng Zhang, Yue Yang, and Shilong Pan
Photonics-based radar with a photonic de-chirp receiver has the advantages of broadband operation and real-time signal processing, but it suffers from interference from image frequencies and other undesired frequency-mixing components, due to single-channel real-valued photonic frequency mixing. In this paper, we propose a photonics-based radar with a photonic frequency-doubling transmitter and a balanced in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) de-chirp receiver. This radar transmits broadband linearly frequency-modulated signals generated by photonic frequency doubling and performs I/Q de-chirping of the radar echoes based on a balanced photonic I/Q frequency mixer, which is realized by applying a 90° optical hybrid followed by balanced photodetectors. The proposed radar has a high range resolution because of the large operation bandwidth and achieves interference-free detection by suppressing the image frequencies and other undesired frequency-mixing components. In the experiment, a photonics-based K-band radar with a bandwidth of 8 GHz is demonstrated. The balanced I/Q de-chirping receiver achieves an image-rejection ratio of over 30 dB and successfully eliminates the interference due to the baseband envelope and the frequency mixing between radar echoes of different targets. In addition, the desired de-chirped signal power is also enhanced with balanced detection. Based on the established photonics-based radar, inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging is also implemented, through which the advantages of the proposed radar are verified.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Feb. 11, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 3, 03000265 (2019)
Spectral measurement of coherence Stokes parameters of random broadband light beams|On the Cover
Henri Partanen, Ari T. Friberg, Tero Set?l?, and Jari Turunen
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: May. 29, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 6, 06000669 (2019)
High-speed and high-efficiency three-dimensional shape measurement based on Gray-coded light
Zhoujie Wu, Wenbo Guo, Yueyang Li, Yihang Liu, and Qican Zhang
Fringe projection profilometry has been increasingly sought and applied in dynamic three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement. In this work, a robust, high-efficiency 3D measurement based on Gray-coded light is proposed. Unlike the traditional method, a tripartite phase unwrapping method is proposed to avoid the jump errors on the boundary of code words, which are mainly caused by the defocusing of the projector and the motion of the tested object. Subsequently, the time-overlapping coding strategy is presented to greatly increase the coding efficiency, decreasing the projected number in each group from seven (i.e., 3+4) to four (i.e., 3+1) for one restored 3D frame. The combination of two proposed techniques allows the reconstruction of a pixel-wise and unambiguous 3D geometry of dynamic scenes with strong noise using every four projected patterns. To the best of our knowledge, the presented techniques for the first time preserve the high anti-noise ability of a method based on the Gray code while overcoming the drawbacks of jump errors and low coding efficiency. Experiments have demonstrated that the proposed method can achieve robust, high-efficiency 3D shape measurement of high-speed dynamic scenes even polluted by strong noise.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: May. 06, 2020
  • Vol. 8, Issue 6, 06000819 (2020)
Distributed Brillouin frequency shift extraction via a convolutional neural network
Yiqing Chang, Hao Wu, Can Zhao, Li Shen, Songnian Fu, and Ming Tang
Distributed optical fiber Brillouin sensors detect the temperature and strain along a fiber according to the local Brillouin frequency shift (BFS), which is usually calculated by the measured Brillouin spectrum using Lorentzian curve fitting. In addition, cross-correlation, principal component analysis, and machine learning methods have been proposed for the more efficient extraction of BFS. However, existing methods only process the Brillouin spectrum individually, ignoring the correlation in the time domain, indicating that there is still room for improvement. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a BFS extraction convolutional neural network (BFSCNN) to retrieve the distributed BFS directly from the measured two-dimensional data. Simulated ideal Brillouin spectra with various parameters are used to train the BFSCNN. Both the simulation and experimental results show that the extraction accuracy of the BFSCNN is better than that of the traditional curve fitting algorithm with a much shorter processing time. The BFSCNN has good universality and robustness and can effectively improve the performances of existing Brillouin sensors.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Apr. 24, 2020
  • Vol. 8, Issue 5, 05000690 (2020)
Emerging micro-additive manufacturing technologies enabled by novel optical methods
Wei Lin, Dihan Chen, and Shih-Chi Chen
This paper presents a comprehensive review of recent advances in micro-additive manufacturing enabled by novel optical methods with an emphasis on photopolymerization-based printing processes. Additive manufacturing, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has become an important engineering solution to construct customized components or functional devices at low cost. As a green manufacturing technology, 3D printing has the advantages of high energy efficiency, low material consumption, and high precision. The rapid advancement of 3D printing technology has broadened its applications from laboratory research to industrial manufacturing. Generally, 3D objects to be printed are constructed digitally [e.g., via computer-aided design (CAD) programs] by connecting a 3D dot array, where a dot is defined as a voxel through mechanical, electrical, or optical means. The voxel size ranges from a few orders of magnitude of the wavelength of light to the sub-diffraction limit, achieved by material nonlinearity and precise power thresholding. In recent years, extensive research in optical additive manufacturing has led to various breakthroughs in quality, rate, and reproducibility. In this paper, we review various micro-3D printing techniques, including single-photon and two-photon processes, with a focus on innovative optical methods, e.g., ultrafast beam shaping, digital holography, and temporal focusing. We also review and compare recent technological advances in serial and parallel scanning systems from the perspectives of resolution, rate, and repeatability, where the strengths and weaknesses of different methods are discussed for both fundamental and industrial applications.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Nov. 12, 2020
  • Vol. 8, Issue 12, 12001827 (2020)
Long-distance ranging with high precision using a soliton microcomb|On the Cover
Jindong Wang, Zhizhou Lu, Weiqiang Wang, Fumin Zhang, Jiawei Chen, Yang Wang, Jihui Zheng, Sai T. Chu, Wei Zhao, Brent E. Little, Xinghua Qu, and Wenfu Zhang
Laser-based light detection and ranging (lidar) plays a significant role in both scientific and industrial areas. However, it is difficult for existing lidars to achieve high speed, high precision, and long distance simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate a high-performance lidar based on a chip-scaled soliton microcomb (SMC) that can realize all three specialties simultaneously. Aided by the excellent properties of ultrahigh repetition rate and the smooth envelope of the SMC, traditional optical frequency comb (OFC)-based dispersive interferometry is heavily improved and the measuring dead zone induced by the mismatch between the repetition rate of the OFC and resolution of the optical spectrum analyzer is totally eliminated. Combined with an auxiliary dual-frequency phase-modulated laser range finder, the none-dead-zone measurable range ambiguity is extended up to 1500 m. The proposed SMC lidar is experimentally implemented in both indoor and outdoor environment. In the outdoor baseline field, real-time, high-speed (up to 35 kHz) measurement of a long distance of ~1179 m is achieved with a minimum Allan deviation of 5.6 μm at an average time of 0.2 ms (27 nm at an average time of 1.8 s after high-pass filtering). The present SMC lidar approaches a compact, fast, high-precision, and none-dead zone long-distance ranging system, aimed at emerging applications of frontier basic scientific research and advances in industrial manufacturing.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Nov. 30, 2020
  • Vol. 8, Issue 12, 12001964 (2020)
Optical frequency synthesizer referenced to an ytterbium optical clock|On the Cover
Yuan Yao, Bo Li, Guang Yang, Xiaotong Chen, Yaqin Hao, Hongfu Yu, Yanyi Jiang, and Longsheng Ma
Optical clocks with an unprecedented accuracy of 10-18 promise innovations in precision spectroscopy and measurement. To harness the full power of optical clocks, we need optical frequency synthesizers (OFSs) to accurately convert the stabilities and accuracies of optical clocks to other desired frequencies. This work demonstrates such an OFS referenced to an ytterbium optical clock. The OFS is based on an optical frequency comb phase-locked to a commercial rubidium microwave clock; in this way most combs can operate robustly. Despite comb frequency instability at 10-11, the synthesis noise and uncertainty reach 6×10-18 (1 s) and 5×10-21, respectively, facilitating frequency synthesis of the best optical clocks. In the OFS, the coherence of the OFS internal oscillator at 1064 nm is accurately transferred to a 578 nm laser for resolving the hertz-level-linewidth ytterbium clock transition (unaffected by megahertz-linewidth comb lines) and faithfully referencing the OFS to an ytterbium optical clock.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Jan. 13, 2021
  • Vol. 9, Issue 2, 02000098 (2021)
Dual-comb spectroscopy resolved three-degree-of-freedom sensing
Siyu Zhou, Vunam Le, Shilin Xiong, Yuetang Yang, Kai Ni, Qian Zhou, and Guanhao Wu
Precise and fast determination of position and orientation, which is normally achieved by distance and angle measurements, has broad applications in academia and industry. We propose a dynamic three-degree-of-freedom measurement technique based on dual-comb interferometry and a self-designed grating-corner-cube (GCC) combined sensor. Benefiting from its unique combination of diffraction and reflection characteristics, the absolute distance, pitch, and yaw of the GCC sensor can be determined simultaneously by resolving the phase spectra of the corresponding diffracted beams. We experimentally demonstrate that the method exhibits a ranging precision (Allan deviation) of 13.7 nm and an angular precision of 0.088 arcsec, alongside a 1 ms reaction time. The proposed technique is capable of precise and fast measurement of distances and two-dimensional angles over long stand-off distances. A system with such an overall performance may be potentially applied to space missions, including in tight formation-flying satellites, for spacecraft rendezvous and docking, and for antenna measurement as well as the precise manufacture of components including lithography machines and aircraft-manufacturing devices.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Feb. 01, 2021
  • Vol. 9, Issue 2, 02000243 (2021)
Graphene metalens for particle nanotracking
Xueyan Li, Shibiao Wei, Guiyuan Cao, Han Lin, Yuejin Zhao, and Baohua Jia
Particle nanotracking (PNT) is highly desirable in lab-on-a-chip systems for flexible and convenient multiparameter measurement. An ultrathin flat lens is the preferred imaging device in such a system, with the advantage of high focusing performance and compactness. However, PNT using ultrathin flat lenses has not been demonstrated so far because PNT requires the clear knowledge of the relationship between the object and image in the imaging system. Such a relationship still remains elusive in ultrathin flat lens-based imaging systems because they operate based on diffraction rather than refraction. In this paper, we experimentally reveal the imaging relationship of a graphene metalens using nanohole arrays with micrometer spacing. The distance relationship between the object and image as well as the magnification ratio is acquired with nanometer accuracy. The measured imaging relationship agrees well with the theoretical prediction and is expected to be applicable to other ultrathin flat lenses based on the diffraction principle. By analyzing the high-resolution images from the graphene metalens using the imaging relationship, 3D trajectories of particles with high position accuracy in PNT have been achieved. The revealed imaging relationship for metalenses is essential in designing different types of integrated optical systems, including digital cameras, microfluidic devices, virtual reality devices, telescopes, and eyeglasses, and thus will find broad applications.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Jul. 15, 2020
  • Vol. 8, Issue 8, 08001316 (2020)
Adaptive optical focusing through perturbed scattering media with a dynamic mutation algorithm
Huanhao Li, Chi Man Woo, Tianting Zhong, Zhipeng Yu, Yunqi Luo, Yuanjin Zheng, Xin Yang, Hui Hui, and Puxiang Lai
Optical imaging through or inside scattering media, such as multimode fiber and biological tissues, has a significant impact in biomedicine yet is considered challenging due to the strong scattering nature of light. In the past decade, promising progress has been made in the field, largely benefiting from the invention of iterative optical wavefront shaping, with which deep-tissue high-resolution optical focusing and hence imaging becomes possible. Most of the reported iterative algorithms can overcome small perturbations on the noise level but fail to effectively adapt beyond the noise level, e.g., sudden strong perturbations. Reoptimizations are usually needed for significant decorrelation to the medium since these algorithms heavily rely on the optimization performance in the previous iterations. Such ineffectiveness is probably due to the absence of a metric that can gauge the deviation of the instant wavefront from the optimum compensation based on the concurrently measured optical focusing. In this study, a square rule of binary-amplitude modulation, directly relating the measured focusing performance with the error in the optimized wavefront, is theoretically proved and experimentally validated. With this simple rule, it is feasible to quantify how many pixels on the spatial light modulator incorrectly modulate the wavefront for the instant status of the medium or the whole system. As an example of application, we propose a novel algorithm, the dynamic mutation algorithm, which has high adaptability against perturbations by probing how far the optimization has gone toward the theoretically optimal performance. The diminished focus of scattered light can be effectively recovered when perturbations to the medium cause a significant drop in the focusing performance, which no existing algorithms can achieve due to their inherent strong dependence on previous optimizations. With further improvement, the square rule and the new algorithm may boost or inspire many applications, such as high-resolution optical imaging and stimulation, in instable or dynamic scattering environments.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Jan. 26, 2021
  • Vol. 9, Issue 2, 02000202 (2021)