Silicon and hybrid silicon photonic devices for intra-datacenter applications: state of the art and perspectives [Invited]
Yu Li, Yu Zhang, Lei Zhang, and Andrew W. Poon
We review the state of the art and our perspectives on silicon and hybrid silicon photonic devices for optical interconnects in datacenters. After a brief discussion of the key requirements for intra-datacenter optical interconnects, we propose a wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM)-based optical interconnect for intra-datacenter applications. Following our proposed interconnects configuration, the bulk of the review emphasizes recent developments concerning on-chip hybrid silicon microlasers and WDM transmitters, and silicon photonic switch fabrics for intra-datacenters. For hybrid silicon microlasers andWDM transmitters, we outline the remaining challenges and key issues toward realizing low power consumption, direct modulation, and integration of multiwavelength microlaser arrays. For silicon photonic switch fabrics, we review various topologies and configurations of high-port-count N-by-N switch fabrics using Mach–Zehnder interferometers and microring resonators as switch elements, and discuss their prospects toward practical implementations with active reconfiguration. For the microring-based switch fabrics, we review recent developments of active stabilization schemes at the subsystem level. Last, we outline several large challenges and problems for silicon and hybrid silicon photonics to meet for intra-datacenter applications and propose potential solutions.Optoelectronics;Diode laser arrays;Diode lasers;Laser resonators
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Jul. 31, 2015
  • Vol. 3, Issue 5, 05000B10 (2015)
InP photonic circuits using generic integration [Invited]
K. A. Williams, E. A. J. M. Bente, D. Heiss, Y. Jiao, K. ?awniczuk, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, and M. K. Smit
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Aug. 28, 2015
  • Vol. 3, Issue 5, 05000B60 (2015)
Lowering the energy consumption in silicon photonic devices and systems [Invited]
Zhiping Zhou, Bing Yin, Qingzhong Deng, Xinbai Li, and Jishi Cui
We review current silicon photonic devices and their performance in connection with energy consumption. Four critical issues are identified to lower energy consumption in devices and systems: reducing the influence of the thermo-optic effect, increasing the wall-plug efficiency of lasers on silicon, optimizing energy performance of modulators, and enhancing the sensitivity of photodetectors. Major conclusions are (1) Mach–Zehnder interferometer-based devices can achieve athermal performance without any extra energy consumption while microrings do not have an efficient passive athermal solution; (2) while direct bonded III–V-based Si lasers can meet system power requirement for now, hetero-epitaxial grown III–V quantum dot lasers are competitive and may be a better option for the future; (3) resonant modulators, especially coupling modulators, are promising for low-energy consumption operation even when the power to stabilize their operation is included; (4) benefiting from high sensitivity and low cost, Ge/Si avalanche photodiode is the most promising photodetector and can be used to effectively reduce the optical link power budget. These analyses and solutions will contribute to further lowering energy consumption to meet aggressive energy demands in future systems.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Aug. 06, 2015
  • Vol. 3, Issue 5, 05000B28 (2015)
Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip [Invited]
Ananth Z. Subramanian, Eva Ryckeboer, Ashim Dhakal, Frédéric Peyskens, Aditya Malik, Bart Kuyken, Haolan Zhao, Shibnath Pathak, Alfonso Ruocco, Andreas De Groote, Pieter Wuytens, Daan Martens, Francois Leo, Weiqiang Xie, Utsav Deepak Dave, Muhammad Muneeb, Pol Van Dorpe, Joris Van Campenhout, Wim Bogaerts, Peter Bienstman, Nicolas Le Thomas, Dries Van Thourhout, Zeger Hens, Gunther Roelkens, and Roel Baets
There is a rapidly growing demand to use silicon and silicon nitride (Si3N4) integrated photonics for sensing applications, ranging from refractive index to spectroscopic sensing. By making use of advanced CMOS technology, complex miniaturized circuits can be easily realized on a large scale and at a low cost covering visible to mid-IR wavelengths. In this paper we present our recent work on the development of silicon and Si3N4-based photonic integrated circuits for various spectroscopic sensing applications. We report our findings on waveguide-based absorption, and Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Finally we report on-chip spectrometers and on-chip broadband light sources covering very near-IR to mid-IR wavelengths to realize fully integrated spectroscopic systems on a chip.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Aug. 28, 2015
  • Vol. 3, Issue 5, 05000B47 (2015)