Holography, Gratings, and Diffraction|19 Article(s)
Terahertz synthetic aperture in-line holography with intensity correction and sparsity autofocusing reconstruction|On the Cover
Zeyu Li, Ruijiao Zou, Weipeng Kong, Xuemin Wang, Qinghua Deng, Qiang Yan, Yu Qin, Weidong Wu, and Xun Zhou
We demonstrate high-resolution and high-quality terahertz (THz) in-line digital holography based on the synthetic aperture method. The setup is built on a self-developed THz quantum cascade laser, and a lateral resolution better than 70 μm (~λ) is achieved at 4.3 THz. To correct intensity differences between sub-holograms before aperture stitching, a practical algorithm with global optimization is proposed. To address the twin-image problem for in-line holography, a sparsity-based phase retrieval algorithm is applied to perform the high-quality reconstruction. Furthermore, a new autofocusing criterion termed “reconstruction objective function” is introduced to obtain the best in-focus reconstruction distance, so the autofocusing procedure and the reconstruction are unified within the same framework. Both simulation and experiment prove its accuracy and robustness. Note that all the methods proposed here can be applied to other wavebands as well. We demonstrate the success of this THz synthetic aperture in-line holography on biological and semiconductor samples, showing its potential applications in bioimaging and materials analysis.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Nov. 15, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 12, 12001391 (2019)
Design and experimental verification of a monolithic complete-light modulator based on birefringent materials
Yingfei Pang, Axiu Cao, Jiazhou Wang, Hui Pang, Wei Yan, Xiangdong Wu, Lifang Shi, and Qiling Deng
This paper presents a method to design a monolithic complete-light modulator (MCLM) that fully controls the amplitude, phase, and polarization of incident light. The MCLM is made of birefringent materials that provide different refractive indices to orthogonal eigen-polarizations, the ordinary o and extraordinary e states. We propose an optimization method to calculate the two relief depth distributions for the two eigen-polarizations. Also, a merging algorithm is proposed to combine the two relief depth distributions into one. The corresponding simulations were carried out in this work and the desired light distribution, including information on amplitude, phase, and four polarization states, was obtained when a laser beam passed through a 16-depth-level micro-structure whose feature size is 8 μm. The structure was fabricated by common photolithography. An experimental optical system was also set up to test the optical effects and performances of the MCLM. The experimental performance of the MCLM agrees with the simulation results, which verifies the validity of the algorithms we propose in this paper.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Jul. 18, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 8, 08000875 (2019)
Synthetic optical vortex beams from the analogous trajectory change of an artificial satellite
Haiping Wang, Liqin Tang, Jina Ma, Xiuyan Zheng, Daohong Song, Yi Hu, Yigang Li, and Zhigang Chen
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Aug. 28, 2019
  • Vol. 7, Issue 9, 09001101 (2019)
High tolerance detour-phase graphene-oxide flat lens
Shibiao Wei, Guiyuan Cao, Han Lin, Haoran Mu, Wenbo Liu, Xiaocong Yuan, Michael Somekh, and Baohua Jia
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Nov. 16, 2021
  • Vol. 9, Issue 12, 12002454 (2021)
Revealing the underlying mechanisms behind TE extraordinary THz transmission
Suzanna Freer, Miguel Camacho, Sergei A. Kuznetsov, Rafael R. Boix, Miguel Beruete, and Miguel Navarro-Cía
Transmission through seemingly opaque surfaces, so-called extraordinary transmission, provides an exciting platform for strong light–matter interaction, spectroscopy, optical trapping, and color filtering. Much of the effort has been devoted to understanding and exploiting TM extraordinary transmission, while TE anomalous extraordinary transmission has been largely omitted in the literature. This is regrettable from a practical point of view since the stronger dependence of the TE anomalous extraordinary transmission on the array’s substrate provides additional design parameters for exploitation. To provide high-performance and cost-effective applications based on TE anomalous extraordinary transmission, a complete physical insight about the underlying mechanisms of the phenomenon must be first laid down. To this end, resorting to a combined methodology including quasi-optical terahertz (THz) time-domain measurements, full-wave simulations, and method of moments analysis, subwavelength slit arrays under s-polarized illumination are studied here, filling the void in the current literature. We believe this work unequivocally reveals the leaky-wave role of the grounded-dielectric slab mode mediating in TE anomalous extraordinary transmission and provides the necessary framework to design practical high-performance THz components and systems.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Mar. 03, 2020
  • Vol. 8, Issue 4, 04000430 (2020)
Super-resolution imaging by optical incoherent synthetic aperture with one channel at a time
Angika Bulbul, and Joseph Rosen
Imaging with an optical incoherent synthetic aperture (SA) means that the incoherent light from observed objects is processed over time from various points of view to obtain a resolution equivalent to single-shot imaging by the SA larger than the actual physical aperture. The operation of such systems has always been based on two-wave interference where the beams propagate through two separate channels. This limitation of two channels at a time is removed in the present study with the proposed SA where the two beams pass through the same single channel at any given time. The system is based on a newly developed self-interference technique named coded aperture correlation holography. At any given time, the recorded intensity is obtained from interference between two waves co-propagating through the same physical channel. One wave oriented in a particular polarization is modulated by a pseudorandom coded phase mask and the other one oriented orthogonally passes through an open subaperture. Both subapertures are multiplexed at the same physical window. The system is calibrated by a point spread hologram synthesized from the responses of a guide star. All the measurements are digitally processed to achieve a final image with a resolution higher than that obtained by the limited physical aperture. This unique configuration can offer alternatives for the current cumbersome systems composed of far apart optical channels in the large optical astronomical interferometers. Furthermore, the proposed concept paves the way to an SA system with a single less-expensive compact light collector in an incoherent optical regime that may be utilized for future ground-based or space telescopes.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Jun. 07, 2021
  • Vol. 9, Issue 7, 07001172 (2021)
Dual-wavelength in-line digital holography with untrained deep neural networks
Chen Bai, Tong Peng, Junwei Min, Runze Li, Yuan Zhou, and Baoli Yao
Dual-wavelength in-line digital holography (DIDH) is one of the popular methods for quantitative phase imaging of objects with non-contact and high-accuracy features. Two technical challenges in the reconstruction of these objects include suppressing the amplified noise and the twin-image that respectively originate from the phase difference and the phase-conjugated wavefronts. In contrast to the conventional methods, the deep learning network has become a powerful tool for estimating phase information in DIDH with the assistance of noise suppressing or twin-image removing ability. However, most of the current deep learning-based methods rely on supervised learning and training instances, thereby resulting in weakness when it comes to applying this training to practical imaging settings. In this paper, a new DIDH network (DIDH-Net) is proposed, which encapsulates the prior image information and the physical imaging process in an untrained deep neural network. The DIDH-Net can effectively suppress the amplified noise and the twin-image of the DIDH simultaneously by automatically adjusting the weights of the network. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed method with robust phase reconstruction is well suited to improve the imaging performance of DIDH.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Dec. 01, 2021
  • Vol. 9, Issue 12, 12002501 (2021)
Lensless Fourier-transform terahertz digital holography for real-time full-field phase imaging
Yaya Zhang, Jie Zhao, Dayong Wang, Yunxin Wang, and Lu Rong
With the development of continuous-wave terahertz (THz) sources and array detectors, the pursuit of high-fidelity real-time imaging is receiving significant attention within the THz community. Here, we report a real-time full-field THz phase imaging approach based on lensless Fourier-transform THz digital holography. A triangular interferometric layout is proposed based on an oblique illumination of 2.52 THz radiation, which is different from other lensless holographic configurations at other frequencies. A spherical reference beam is generated by a reflective parabolic mirror with minor propagation loss. The complex-valued images are reconstructed using a single inverse Fourier transform of the hologram without complex calculation of the diffraction propagation. The experimental result for a Siemens star validates the lateral resolution of ∼346 μm in the diagonal direction. Sub-pixel image registration and image stitching algorithms are applied to enlarge the area of the reconstructed images. The dehydration process of an aquatic plant leaf (Hottonia inflata) is monitored for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, at the THz band. Rapid variations in water content and morphology are measured with a time interval of 0.6 s and a total time of 5 min from a series of reconstructed amplitude and phase images, respectively. The proposed method has the potential to become a powerful tool to investigate spontaneous phenomena at the THz band.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Jan. 11, 2022
  • Vol. 10, Issue 2, 02000323 (2022)
Quasi-omnibearing retro-reflective metagrating protected by reciprocity
Yuxiang Jia, Jiafu Wang, Yajuan Han, Ruichao Zhu, Zhongtao Zhang, Jie Yang, Yueyu Meng, Yongfeng Li, and Shaobo Qu
Reciprocity is ubiquitous in antennas for receiving and radiating electromagnetic (EM) waves, i.e., if an antenna has good receiving performance at a given direction, it also has good radiation performance in that direction. Inspired by this, we propose a method of designing a quasi-ominibearing retro-reflective metagrating (RRMG) protected by the reciprocity of antennas. Based on the second-order mode around 15.0 GHz of a short-circuited structured patch antenna (SPA), incident transverse magnetic waves can be received, channeled into the coaxial lines, reflected by the shortened end, and finally re-radiated into free space with a reversed wave vector. RRMGs are contrived consisting of this identical SPA, with a grating constant allowing ±2nd-, ±1st-, and zeroth-order diffractions. Oblique incidence, plus the tilted nulls of the re-radiation pattern, can eliminate -1st, zeroth, +1st, and +2nd orders, and only the -2nd order is left to achieve retro-reflections. Prototypes were fabricated and measured. Simulated and measured results show that the RRMGs maintain only -2nd-order diffraction for incident angles 32.2°≤θi90.0° in four quadrants, and that RRMGs can achieve quasi-omnibearing retro-reflections for θi=50.0°. The use of higher-order diffraction brings more degrees of freedom in manipulating EM waves, and this strategy can be readily extended to millimeter waves, THz wave, or even optical regimes.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Mar. 04, 2022
  • Vol. 10, Issue 4, 04000843 (2022)