Ultra-intense laser interacting with plasma is a rapidly developing field attracting much attention. It has been demonstrated that multi-gigaelectronvolt electrons, approximately 100 MeV ions[2–4], and copious secondary radiations from extreme ultraviolet bursts[5,6] to gamma rays[7,8] can be generated from the complex interactions. In these studies, targets play the core roles as they determine the properties of the plasma. Many kinds of targets have been employed in the experiments. Gas targets, generated from a supersonic nozzle or contained in a cell, have been widely used for electron acceleration in laser wakefield acceleration scheme. Solid targets, in contrast, are widely employed for ion acceleration. Micrometer-thick metal or plastic foils were firstly used to accelerate protons in target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme. Later on, other schemes such as radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) and relativistic induced transparency (RIT) were explored in experiments thanks to the successful fabrication of free-standing nanometer-thin foils made of diamond-like carbon (DLC), plastic or metal foils[15,16].
Set citation alerts for the article
Please enter your email address