• Advanced Photonics
  • Vol. 3, Issue 5, 055003 (2021)
Jinqi Wu1, Rui Su1、*, Antonio Fieramosca1, Sanjib Ghosh1, Jiaxin Zhao1, Timothy C. H. Liew1、2、*, and Qihua Xiong3、4、5、*
Author Affiliations
  • 1Nanyang Technological University, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Division of Physics and Applied Physics, Singapore
  • 2MajuLab, International Joint Research Unit UMI 3654, CNRS, Université Côte d’Azur, Sorbonne Université, National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
  • 3Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Beijing, China
  • 4Beijing Academy of Quantum Information Sciences, Beijing, China
  • 5Tsinghua University, Beijing Innovation Center for Future Chips, Beijing, China
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    Abstract

    Optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) have been widely applied in spectroscopy, squeezed light, and correlated photons, as well as quantum information. Conventional OPOs usually suffer from a high power threshold limited by weak high-order nonlinearity in traditional pure photonic systems. Alternatively, polaritonic systems based on hybridized exciton–photon quasi-particles exhibit enhanced optical nonlinearity by dressing photons with excitons, ensuring highly nonlinear operations with low power consumption. We report an on-chip perovskite polariton parametric oscillator with a low threshold. Under the resonant excitation at a range of angles, the signal at the ground state is obtained, emerging from the polariton–polariton interactions at room temperature. Our results advocate a practical way toward integrated nonlinear polaritonic devices with low thresholds.

    1 Introduction

    Optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) convert a pump frequency ωp into signal ωs and idler ωi frequencies, satisfying the energy conservation law (with the second-order nonlinearity, ωp=ωi+ωs; with the third-order nonlinearity, 2ωp=ωi+ωs). These indispensable devices have been widely used in creating tunable and coherent light for the application of spectroscopy.1 In addition, OPOs have attracted considerable interest in other fields such as the generation of squeezed light,2,3 correlated photons,46 and quantum information including quantum random number generation and Ising machines.7 In traditional systems, OPOs usually require noncentrosymmetric crystals (second-order nonlinearity) embedded in an external resonator, which is resonant with the pump wavelength as well as the wavelength of generated signal and idler states. Such generated signal and idler states can be further tuned by controlling the phase matching condition via changing the temperature or angle of the nonlinear crystal or tuning the pump wavelength.8 However, such traditional OPOs usually suffer from a high power threshold,8 since anisotropic crystals require stringent birefringence phase matching requirements and usually exhibit limited high-order nonlinearity.9 Moreover, crystals in centrosymmetric space groups such as all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbBr3) need to break inversion-symmetry by anion substitution or other specific complex processes.1012 Despite the recent progresses achieved in various bulk whispering gallery mode-based OPOs,1316 the threshold powers are still relatively large, particularly the chip-scale planar OPOs,8,1719 which hinder the road toward integrated nonlinear photonic devices.

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    Jinqi Wu, Rui Su, Antonio Fieramosca, Sanjib Ghosh, Jiaxin Zhao, Timothy C. H. Liew, Qihua Xiong. Perovskite polariton parametric oscillator[J]. Advanced Photonics, 2021, 3(5): 055003
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    Category: Letters
    Received: Jul. 29, 2021
    Accepted: Oct. 7, 2021
    Published Online: Nov. 1, 2021
    The Author Email: Su Rui (surui@ntu.edu.sg), Liew Timothy C. H. (Timothyliew@ntu.edu.sg), Xiong Qihua (Qihua_xiong@tsinghua.edu.cn)