• Photonics Research
  • Vol. 9, Issue 5, 05000839 (2021)
Yuchan Zhang1, Qilin Jiang1, Kaiqiang Cao1, Tianqi Chen1, Ke Cheng1, Shian Zhang1, Donghai Feng1, Tianqing Jia1、2、*, Zhenrong Sun1, and Jianrong Qiu3
Author Affiliations
  • 1State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, School of Physics and Materials Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
  • 2Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
  • 3State Key Laboratory of Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
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    Abstract

    Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) have several applications in surface structuring and functionalization. Three major challenges exist in the fabrication of regular and uniform LIPSS: enhancing the periodic energy deposition, reducing the residual heat, and avoiding the deposited debris. Herein, we fabricate an extremely regular low-spatial-frequency LIPSS (LSFL) on a silicon surface by a temporally shaped femtosecond laser. Based on a 4f configuration zero-dispersion pulse shaping system, a Fourier transform limit (FTL) pulse is shaped into a pulse train with varying intervals in the range of 0.25–16.2 ps using periodic π-phase step modulation. Under the irradiation of the shaped pulse with an interval of 16.2 ps, extremely regular LSFLs are efficiently fabricated on silicon. The scan velocity for fabricating regular LSFL is 2.3 times faster, while the LSFL depth is 2 times deeper, and the diffraction efficiency is 3 times higher than those of LSFL using the FTL pulse. The formation mechanisms of regular LSFL have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The results show that the temporally shaped pulse enhances the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons and the periodic energy deposition while reducing the residual thermal effects and avoiding the deposition of the ejected debris, eventually resulting in regular and deeper LSFL on the silicon surface.

    1. INTRODUCTION

    Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) have been widely studied over the last 20 years [14]. These periodic nanostructures efficiently modify the properties of materials and have many applications in surface coloring [5,6], large-area grating [7,8], birefringence optical elements [9], data storage [10], and surface wettability [11,12]. In general, three main characteristics are considered for evaluating the quality of LIPSS: uniformity, depth, and orientation, which have a significant influence on their functions.

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    Yuchan Zhang, Qilin Jiang, Kaiqiang Cao, Tianqi Chen, Ke Cheng, Shian Zhang, Donghai Feng, Tianqing Jia, Zhenrong Sun, Jianrong Qiu. Extremely regular periodic surface structures in a large area efficiently induced on silicon by temporally shaped femtosecond laser[J]. Photonics Research, 2021, 9(5): 05000839
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    Category: Ultrafast Optics
    Received: Jan. 11, 2021
    Accepted: Mar. 4, 2021
    Published Online: May. 7, 2021
    The Author Email: Tianqing Jia (tqjia@phy.ecnu.edu.cn)