As a blooming planar optics device, metasurfaces provide a brand-new route for performing wavefront modulation functions, which show great revolution in 3D bulk metamaterial counterparts [1–7]. Metasurfaces have successfully been applied in miniaturized optics, including wavefront shaping, asymmetric transmission, holographic displays, optical encryption, nonlinear optics, optical cloaking, and storage [8–15]. Notably, metasurface holography assisted by smart algorithms can overcome the limitations faced by traditional holography  as it possesses the advantages of large field of view, elimination of unnecessary diffraction orders, and enhancement of information capacity [17–19]. By engineering the amplitude, phase, and polarization for designing metasurfaces, such optimal holographic techniques have achieved various multiplexing schemes [20–25].
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