Research Articles|55 Article(s)
Bound states in the continuum and Fano resonances in the strong mode coupling regime
Andrey A. Bogdanov, Kirill L. Koshelev, Polina V. Kapitanova, Mikhail V. Rybin, Sergey A. Gladyshev, Zarina F. Sadrieva, Kirill B. Samusev, Yuri S. Kivshar, and Mikhail F. Limonov
The study of resonant dielectric nanostructures with a high refractive index is a new research direction in the nanoscale optics and metamaterial-inspired nanophotonics. Because of the unique optically induced electric and magnetic Mie resonances, high-index nanoscale structures are expected to complement or even replace different plasmonic components in a range of potential applications. We study a strong coupling between modes of a single subwavelength high-index dielectric resonator and analyze the mode transformation and Fano resonances when the resonator’s aspect ratio varies. We demonstrate that strong mode coupling results in resonances with high-quality factors, which are related to the physics of bound states in the continuum when the radiative losses are almost suppressed due to the Friedrich–Wintgen scenario of destructive interference. We explain the physics of these states in terms of multipole decomposition, and show that their appearance is accompanied by a drastic change in the far-field radiation pattern. We reveal a fundamental link between the formation of the high-quality resonances and peculiarities of the Fano parameter in the scattering cross-section spectra. Our theoretical findings are confirmed by microwave experiments for the scattering of high-index cylindrical resonators with a tunable aspect ratio. The proposed mechanism of the strong mode coupling in single subwavelength high-index resonators accompanied by resonances with high-quality factors helps to extend substantially functionalities of all-dielectric nanophotonics, which opens horizons for active and passive nanoscale metadevices.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Jan. 28, 2019
  • Vol.1 Issue, 1 016001 (2019)
Subvoxel light-sheet microscopy for high-resolution high-throughput volumetric imaging of large biomedical specimens|On the Cover
Peng Fei, Jun Nie, Juhyun Lee, Yichen Ding, Shuoran Li, Hao Zhang, Masaya Hagiwara, Tingting Yu, Tatiana Segura, Chih-Ming Ho, Dan Zhu, and Tzung K. Hsiai
A key challenge when imaging whole biomedical specimens is how to quickly obtain massive cellular information over a large field of view (FOV). We report a subvoxel light-sheet microscopy (SLSM) method enabling high-throughput volumetric imaging of mesoscale specimens at cellular resolution. A nonaxial, continuous scanning strategy is developed to rapidly acquire a stack of large-FOV images with three-dimensional (3-D) nanoscale shifts encoded. Then, by adopting a subvoxel-resolving procedure, the SLSM method models these low-resolution, cross-correlated images in the spatial domain and can iteratively recover a 3-D image with improved resolution throughout the sample. This technique can surpass the optical limit of a conventional light-sheet microscope by more than three times, with high acquisition speeds of gigavoxels per minute. By fast reconstruction of 3-D cultured cells, intact organs, and live embryos, SLSM method presents a convenient way to circumvent the trade-off between mapping large-scale tissue (>100 mm3) and observing single cell (~1-μm resolution). It also eliminates the need of complicated mechanical stitching or modulated illumination, using a simple light-sheet setup and fast graphics processing unit-based computation to achieve high-throughput, high-resolution 3-D microscopy, which could be tailored for a wide range of biomedical applications in pathology, histology, neuroscience, etc.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Jan. 28, 2019
  • Vol.1 Issue, 1 016002 (2019)
Noniterative spatially partially coherent diffractive imaging using pinhole array mask
Xingyuan Lu, Yifeng Shao, Chengliang Zhao, Sander Konijnenberg, Xinlei Zhu, Ying Tang, Yangjian Cai, and H. Paul Urbach
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a noniterative diffractive imaging method for reconstructing the complex-valued transmission function of an object illuminated by spatially partially coherent light from the far-field diffraction pattern. Our method is based on a pinhole array mask, which is specially designed such that the correlation function in the mask plane can be obtained directly by inverse Fourier transforming the diffraction pattern. Compared to the traditional iterative diffractive imaging methods using spatially partially coherent illumination, our method is noniterative and robust to the degradation of the spatial coherence of the illumination. In addition to diffractive imaging, the proposed method can also be applied to spatial coherence property characterization, e.g., free-space optical communication and optical coherence singularity measurement.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Jan. 28, 2019
  • Vol.1 Issue, 1 016005 (2019)
High Q-factor controllable phononic modes in hybrid phononic–dielectric structures
Bo Qiang, Alexander M. Dubrovkin, Harish N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Qian Wang, Cesare Soci, Ying Zhang, Jinghua Teng, and Qi Jie Wang
Phonon polariton resonances in the mid-infrared spectral range demonstrate properties superior to noble metal-based plasmonics, owing to smaller dissipative loss and better field confinement. However, a conventional way to excite the localized phonon resonance involves ion etching, which reduces the attainable quality factors (Q-factors) of the resonators. We show that by introducing a deep subwavelength layer of dielectric gratings on a phononic substrate, localized dipolar resonance and higher order modes with high Q-factors 96 and 195, respectively, can be excited. We further demonstrate, via experiments and simulations, that the resonant wavelength and field confinement can be controlled by coupling the localized hybrid mode with propagating surface phonon-polaritons. We also observed for the first time the coupling between a localized dipolar mode and a propagating higher-order surface phonon-polariton mode. The results will be useful in designing on-chip, low-loss, and highly integrated phononic devices in the infrared spectral domain.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Apr. 23, 2019
  • Vol.1 Issue, 2 026001 (2019)
Revealing the behavior of soliton buildup in a mode-locked laser
Xueming Liu, and Yudong Cui
Real-time spectroscopy based on an emerging time-stretch technique can map the spectral information of optical waves into the time domain, opening several fascinating explorations of nonlinear dynamics in mode-locked lasers. However, the self-starting process of mode-locked lasers is quite sensitive to environmental perturbation, which causes the transient behaviors of lasers to deviate from the true buildup process of solitons. We optimize the laser system to improve its stability, which suppresses the Q-switched lasing induced by environmental perturbation. We, therefore, demonstrate the first observation of the entire buildup process of solitons in a mode-locked laser, revealing two possible pathways to generate the temporal solitons. One pathway includes the dynamics of raised relaxation oscillation, quasimode-locking stage, spectral beating behavior, and finally the stable single-soliton mode-locking. The other pathway contains, however, an extra transient bound-state stage before the final single-pulse mode-locking operation. Moreover, we propose a theoretical model to predict the buildup time of solitons, which agrees well with the experimental results. Our findings can bring real-time insights into ultrafast fiber laser design and optimization, as well as promote the application of fiber laser.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Jan. 28, 2019
  • Vol.1 Issue, 1 016003 (2019)
End-to-end deep learning framework for digital holographic reconstruction
Zhenbo Ren, Zhimin Xu, and Edmund Y. Lam
Digital holography records the entire wavefront of an object, including amplitude and phase. To reconstruct the object numerically, we can backpropagate the hologram with Fresnel–Kirchhoff integral-based algorithms such as the angular spectrum method and the convolution method. Although effective, these techniques require prior knowledge, such as the object distance, the incident angle between the two beams, and the source wavelength. Undesirable zero-order and twin images have to be removed by an additional filtering operation, which is usually manual and consumes more time in off-axis configuration. In addition, for phase imaging, the phase aberration has to be compensated, and subsequently an unwrapping step is needed to recover the true object thickness. The former either requires additional hardware or strong assumptions, whereas the phase unwrapping algorithms are often sensitive to noise and distortion. Furthermore, for a multisectional object, an all-in-focus image and depth map are desired for many applications, but current approaches tend to be computationally demanding. We propose an end-to-end deep learning framework, called a holographic reconstruction network, to tackle these holographic reconstruction problems. Through this data-driven approach, we show that it is possible to reconstruct a noise-free image that does not require any prior knowledge and can handle phase imaging as well as depth map generation.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Jan. 28, 2019
  • Vol.1 Issue, 1 016004 (2019)
Air-core fiber distribution of hybrid vector vortex-polarization entangled states|On the Cover
Daniele Cozzolino, Emanuele Polino, Mauro Valeri, Gonzalo Carvacho, Davide Bacco, Nicolò Spagnolo, Leif K. Oxenløwe, and Fabio Sciarrino
Entanglement distribution between distant parties is one of the most important and challenging tasks in quantum communication. Distribution of photonic entangled states using optical fiber links is a fundamental building block toward quantum networks. Among the different degrees of freedom, orbital angular momentum (OAM) is one of the most promising due to its natural capability to encode high dimensional quantum states. We experimentally demonstrate fiber distribution of hybrid polarization-vector vortex entangled photon pairs. To this end, we exploit a recently developed air-core fiber that supports OAM modes. High fidelity distribution of the entangled states is demonstrated by performing quantum state tomography in the polarization-OAM Hilbert space after fiber propagation and by violations of Bell inequalities and multipartite entanglement tests. The results open new scenarios for quantum applications where correlated complex states can be transmitted by exploiting the vectorial nature of light.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Aug. 27, 2019
  • Vol.1 Issue, 4 046005 (2019)
Synchronization and temporal nonreciprocity of optical microresonators via spontaneous symmetry breaking
Da Xu, Zi-Zhao Han, Yu-Kun Lu, Qihuang Gong, Cheng-Wei Qiu, Gang Chen, and Yun-Feng Xiao
Synchronization is of importance in both fundamental and applied physics, but its demonstration at the micro/nanoscale is mainly limited to low-frequency oscillations such as mechanical resonators. We report the synchronization of two coupled optical microresonators, in which the high-frequency resonances in the optical domain are aligned with reduced noise. It is found that two types of synchronization regimes emerge with either the first- or second-order transition, both presenting a process of spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the second-order regime, the synchronization happens with an invariant topological character number and a larger detuning than that of the first-order case. Furthermore, an unconventional hysteresis behavior is revealed for a time-dependent coupling strength, breaking the static limitation and the temporal reciprocity. The synchronization of optical microresonators offers great potential in reconfigurable simulations of many-body physics and scalable photonic devices on a chip.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Aug. 22, 2019
  • Vol.1 Issue, 4 046002 (2019)
Dielectric metasurfaces for distance measurements and three-dimensional imaging|On the Cover
Chunqi Jin, Mina Afsharnia, René Berlich, Stefan Fasold, Chengjun Zou, Dennis Arslan, Isabelle Staude, Thomas Pertsch, and Frank Setzpfandt
Ultrathin metasurfaces have shown the capability to influence all aspects of light propagation. This has made them promising options for replacing conventional bulky imaging optics while adding advantageous optical properties or functionalities. We demonstrate that such metasurfaces can also be applied for single-lens three-dimensional (3-D) imaging based on a specifically engineered point-spread function (PSF). Using Huygens’ metasurfaces with high transmission, we design and realize a phase mask that implements a rotating PSF for 3-D imaging. We experimentally characterize the properties of the realized double-helix PSF, finding that it can uniquely encode object distances within a wide range. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate wide-field depth retrieval within a 3-D scene, showing the suitability of metasurfaces to realize optics for 3-D imaging, using just a single camera and lens system.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Jun. 18, 2019
  • Vol.1 Issue, 3 036001 (2019)
Holographic particle localization under multiple scattering
Waleed Tahir, Ulugbek S. Kamilov, and Lei Tian
We introduce a computational framework that incorporates multiple scattering for large-scale three-dimensional (3-D) particle localization using single-shot in-line holography. Traditional holographic techniques rely on single-scattering models that become inaccurate under high particle densities and large refractive index contrasts. Existing multiple scattering solvers become computationally prohibitive for large-scale problems, which comprise millions of voxels within the scattering volume. Our approach overcomes the computational bottleneck by slicewise computation of multiple scattering under an efficient recursive framework. In the forward model, each recursion estimates the next higher-order multiple scattered field among the object slices. In the inverse model, each order of scattering is recursively estimated by a nonlinear optimization procedure. This nonlinear inverse model is further supplemented by a sparsity promoting procedure that is particularly effective in localizing 3-D distributed particles. We show that our multiple-scattering model leads to significant improvement in the quality of 3-D localization compared to traditional methods based on single scattering approximation. Our experiments demonstrate robust inverse multiple scattering, allowing reconstruction of 100 million voxels from a single 1-megapixel hologram with a sparsity prior. The performance bound of our approach is quantified in simulation and validated experimentally. Our work promises utilization of multiple scattering for versatile large-scale applications.
Advanced Photonics
  • Publication Date: Jun. 18, 2019
  • Vol.1 Issue, 3 036003 (2019)