Integrated traveling-wave lithium niobate modulators need relatively large device lengths to achieve low drive voltage. To increase modulation efficiency within a compact footprint, we report an integrated Fabry–Perot-type electro-optic thin film lithium niobate on insulator modulator comprising a phase modulation region sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors. The device exhibits low optical loss and a high tuning efficiency of 15.7 pm/V. We also confirm the modulator’s high-speed modulation performance by non-return-to-zero modulation with a data rate up to 56 Gbit/s..
We theoretically propose a hybrid lithium niobate (LN) thin-film waveguide that consists of an amorphous silicon stripe and etch-free z-cut LN for highly efficient wavelength conversion, circumventing the challenging etching on LN material. Profiting from the spatial symmetry breaking of the waveguide, the asymmetric hybrid modes can spontaneously achieve phase matching with small modal area and large spatial mode overlap, enabling enhanced second harmonic generation with a normalized conversion efficiency over
Based on nonlinear wave mixing, we experimentally propose a scheme for directly generating optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) by a spirally structured fundamental wave interacting with a nonlinear medium, in which the nonlinear susceptibilities are homogenous. In the experiment, the second-harmonic generation of a fundamental wave carrying positive (negative) integers and fractional OAM states was investigated. This study presents a convenient approach for dynamic control of OAM of vortex beams, which may feature their applications in optical manipulation and optical communication..
Periodically poled lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) ridge waveguides are desirable for high-efficiency nonlinear frequency conversions, and the fabrication process of such waveguides is crucial for device performance. In this work, we report fabrication and characterization of locally periodically poled ridge waveguides. Ridge waveguides were fabricated by dry etching, and then the high-voltage pulses were applied to locally poled ridge waveguides. Second harmonic generation with normalized conversion efficiency of 435.5% W-1·cm-2 was obtained in the periodically poled LNOI ridge waveguide, which was consistent with the triangular domain structure revealed by confocal microscopy..
Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI), as an emerging and promising optical integration platform, faces shortages of on-chip active devices including lasers and amplifiers. Here, we report the fabrication of on-chip erbium-doped LNOI waveguide amplifiers based on electron beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching. A net internal gain of ～30 dB/cm in the communication band was achieved in the fabricated waveguide amplifiers under the pump of a 974 nm continuous laser. This work develops new active devices on LNOI and may promote the development of LNOI integrated photonics..
We report on the fabrication and optimization of lithium niobate planar and ridge waveguides at the wavelength of 633 nm. To obtain a planar waveguide, oxygen ions with an energy of 3.0 MeV and a fluence of
High-Q lithium niobate (LN) optical micro-resonators are an excellent platform for future applications in optical communications, nonlinear optics, and quantum optics. To date, high-Q factors are typically achieved in LN using either dielectric masks or femtosecond laser ablation, while the more standard and commonly available lift-off metallic masks are often believed to lead to rough sidewalls and lowered Q factors. Here, we show that LN microring resonators with strong light confinement and intrinsic Q factors over 1 million can be fabricated using optimized lift-off metallic masks and dry etching processes, corresponding to a waveguide propagation loss of
The nonlinear Talbot effect is a near-field nonlinear diffraction phenomenon in which the self-imaging of periodic objects is formed by the second harmonics of the incident laser beam. We demonstrate the first, to the best of our knowledge, example of nonlinear Talbot self-healing, i.e., the capability of creating defect-free images from faulty nonlinear optical structures. In particular, we employ the tightly focused femtosecond infrared optical pulses to fabricate
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We investigate the influences of structure parameters and interface shapes on the bandwidth of the edge state of lithium niobate valley photonic crystals. By increasing the size difference of two air holes in the same unit cell, we find that the bandwidth of the lossless nontrivial edge state possesses a peak value of 0.0201(a/λ), which can be used to construct broadband valley photonic crystal waveguides. Mode field distributions verify that the waveguide is robust against sharp bends and exhibits chirality. When the unit cell is arranged in a bearded interface with the top and bottom components showing negative and positive valley Chern numbers, respectively, we find that the lithium niobate valley photonic crystal is more likely to exhibit a lossless edge state, which is difficult to be realized in valley waveguides with low refractive index materials. This work can provide guidance on the design of the high-performance topological waveguide..
We study the effect of dimension variation for second-harmonic generation (SHG) in lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) waveguides. Non-trivial SHG profiles in both type-0 and type-I quasi-phase matching are observed during the wavelength tuning of the fundamental light. Theoretical modeling shows that the SHG profile and efficiency can be greatly affected by the waveguide cross-section dimension variations, especially the thickness variations. In particular, our analysis shows that a thickness variation of tens of nanometers is in good agreement with the experimental results. Such investigations could be used to evaluate fabrication performance of LNOI-based nonlinear optical devices..
The heterogeneous integration of silicon thin film and lithium niobate (LN) thin film combines both the advantages of the excellent electronics properties and mature micro-processing technology of Si and the excellent optical properties of LN, comprising a potentially promising material platform for photonic integrated circuits. Based on ion-implantation and wafer-bonding technologies, a 3 inch wafer-scale hybrid mono-crystalline Si/LN thin film was fabricated. A high-resolution transmission electron microscope was used to investigate the crystal-lattice arrangement of each layer and the interfaces. Only the H-atom-concentration distribution was investigated using secondary-ion mass spectroscopy. High-resolution X-ray-diffraction